The journal entries found here are not the complete entries of Lewis and Clark. They are merely sampling of some of the entries. Author is noted when known.
The journal entries found here are not the complete entries of Lewis and Clark. They are merely sampling of some of the entries. Author is noted when known.
May 13, 1804
Boats and everything Complete, with the necessary stores of provisions & such articles of merchandize as we thought ourselves authorised to procure -- tho' not as much as I think nessy. for the multitude of Inds. thro which we must pass on our road across the Continent &c. &c.
May 14, 1804
All the preparations being completed, we left our encampment. This spot is at the mouth of the Wood River, a small stream which empties itsef into the Mississippi, opposite to the entrance of the Missouri...
...Not being able to set sail before four o'clock P.M., we did not make more than four miles, and encamped on the first island opposite a small creek called Cold Water.
May 24, 1804
Passing near the southern shore, the bank fell in so fast as to oblige us to cross the river instantly, between the northern side and a sandbar which is constantly moving and banking with the violence of the current. The boat struck on it and would have upset immediately, if the men had not jumped into the water and held her, til the sand washed from under her.
June 4, 1804
...passed a Small Creek... we named Nightingale Creek from a Bird of that description which sang for us all last night, and is the first of the Kind I ever heard...
...the Serjt. at the helm run under a bending Tree & broke the Mast...
June 15, 1804
...the river being very high, the sandbars were so rolling and numerous, and the current so strong, that we were unable to stem it even with the oars added to our sails; this obliged us to go nearer the banks, which were falling in, so that we could not make, though the boat was occasionally towed, more than fourteen miles.
June 28, 1804
(about the Kansas Indians)...they have been reduced and banished by the Sauks and Ayauways, who being better supplied with arms have an advantage over the Kanzas, though the latter are not less fierce or warlike than themselves. This nation is now hunting in the plains for the buffalo which our hunters have seen for the first time.
June 29, 1804
(Orderly Book) Camp Mouth of the Kansies June 29, 1804
Ordered --- A Court Martiall will Set this day at 11 oClock... for the trial of John Collins and Hugh Hall...
John Collins Charged "with getting drunk on his post this Morning out of whiskey put under his charge as a Sentinal, and for suffering Hugh Hall to draw whiskey out of the Said Barrel intended for the party."
...The commanding Officers approve of the Sentence of the Court and orders that Punishment take place at half past three this evening, at which time the party will Parrade for inspection.
July 4, 1804
ussered in the day by a discharge of one shot from our Bow piece, proceeded on...
July 12, 1804
The Commanding officers, Capts. M. Lewis & W. Clark constituted themselves a Court Martial for the trial of such persons as are Guilty of Capatal Crimes, and under the rules and articles of War punishable by DEATH.
Alexander Willard was brought forward Charged with "Lying down and Sleeping on his post" whilst a Sentinal...
To this Charge the prisoner pleads Guilty of Lying Down, and Not Guilty, of Going to Sleep
The court after Duly Considering the evidence aduced, are of oppinion that the Prisoner Alexdr. Willard is guilty of every part of the Charge exhibited against him. it being a breach of the rules and articles of War do Sentence him to receive One hundred lashes, on his bear back, at four different times in equal proportion. and Order that the punishment Commence this evening at Sunset, and Continue to be inflicted every evening until Completed.
July 20, 1804
For a month past the party have been troubled with boils, and occasionally with the dysentery. These boils were large tomours which broke out under the arms, on the legs, and, generally, in the parts most exposed to action, which sometimes became to painful to permit the men to work.
This disorder....has not affected the general health of the party, which is quite as good, if not better, than that of the same number of men in any other situation.
August 20, 1804
...we had the misfortune to lose one of our sergeants, Charles Floyd. He was yesterday seized with a bilious colic, and all our care and attention were ineffectual to relieve him: a little before his death, he said to Captain Clark, " I am going to leave you" his strength failed him as he added, "I want you to write me a letter;" but he died with a composure which justified the high opinion had formed of his firmness and good conduct. He was buried on the top of the bluff with the honours due to a brave soldier
August 22, 1804
In order to supply the place of sergeant Floyd, we permitted the men to name three persons, and Patrick Gass having the greatest number of votes was made sergeant.
August 25, 1804
Capt. Lewis & Myself concluded to go and See the Mound which was Viewed with Such turror by all the different Nations in this quarter, ... our Dog was so Heeted and fatigued we was obliged [to] Send him back to the Creek, ... Capt. Lewis much fatigued...
One evidence which the Inds give for believing this place to be the residence of some unusial Sperits is that they frequently discover a large assemblage of Birds about this Mound [this] is in my opinion a Sufficent proof to produce in the Savage Mind a Confident belief of all the properties which they ascribe [to] it.
Numerous herds of buffalow...
August 27, 1804
... could neither find Shannon nor horses, ...
... above this Bluff we had the Prarie Set on fire to let the Soues See that we were on the river, and as a Signal for them to Come to it.
August 29, 1804
Sent on Colter with Provisions in pursute of Shannon, ...
... the Scioues Camps are handsom of a Conic form Covered with Buffalow Roabs Painted different colours and all compact & handsomly arranged, ...a Fat Dog was presented as a mark of their Great respect for the party of which they partook hartily and thought it good and well flavored.
August 30, 1804
... a Council under an Oak Tree near where we had a flag flying on a high flagstaff ... The Souex is a Stout bold looking people, & well made, the greater part of make use of Bows & arrows, Some fiew fusees I observe among them, notwith standing they live by the Bow and arrow, they do not Shoot So Well as the Northern Indians the Warriers are Verry much deckerated with Paint Porcupine quils & feathers, large leagins and mockersons, all with buffalow roabs of Different Colours. the Squars wore Peticoats & a White Buffalow roabe with the black hare turned back over their necks and Shoulders.
This Nation is Divided into 20 Tribes, ...
September 7, 1804
As we descended from this dome, we arrived at a spot, on the gradual descent of the hill, nearly four acres in extent, and covered with small holes: these are the residence of a little animal [prairie dog], called by the French petit chien (little dog), who sit erect near the mouth, and make a whistling noise, but when alarmed take refuge in their holes. In order to bring them out, we poured into one of the holes five barrels of water without filling it, but we dislodged and caught the owner. After digging down another of the holes for six feet, we found, on running a pole into it, that we
had not yet dug half way to the bottom: we discovered, however, two frogs
in the hole, and near it we killed a dark rattlesnake, which had swallowed a small prairie dog: we were also informed, though we never witnessed the fact, that a sort of lizard, and a snake, live habitually with these animals. The petit chien are justly named, as they resemble a small dog in some particulars, though they have also some points of similarity to the squirrel. The head resembles the squirrel in every respect, except that the ear is shorter, the tail like that of the ground-squirrel, the toe-nails are long, the fur is fine, and the long hair is gray.
September 7, 1804
... discovered a Village of Small animals that burrow in the grown (those animals are Called by the french Petite Chien) Killed one and Caught one live by poreing a great quantity of Water in his hole we attempted to dig to the beds of one of those animals, ...
... Contains great numbers of holes on the top of which those little animals Set erect make a Whistleing noise and whin allarmed Step into their hole.
September 11, 1804
here the Man who left us with the horses 22 (16) days ago George Shannon He started 26 Augt.) and has been a head ever since joined us nearly Starved to Death, he had been 12 days without any thing to eate but Grapes & one Rabit, which he Killed by shooting a piece of hard Stick in place of a ball. ... thus a man had like to have Starved to death in a land of Plenty for the want of Bullitts or Something to kill his meat. ... I saw Several foxes & Killed a Elk & 2 Deer & Squirels. the men with me killed an Elk, 2 Deer & a Pelican
September 16, 1804
deturmined to dry our wet thi[n]gs and liten the boat which we found Could not proceed with the present load ... for this purpose we concluded to detain the Perogue we had intended to send back & load her out of the boat & detain the Soldiers untill Spring & Send them from our Winter quarters.
I gave out a flannel Shirt to each man, & powder to those who had expended theres.
September 17, 1804
Colter Killed a Goat like the one I killed and a curious kind of Deer (Mule Deer) of a Dark gray Colr. more so than common, ... this Spec[i]es of Deer jumps like a goat or Sheep
September 17, 1804
Having for many days past confined myself to the boat, I determined to devote this day to amuse myself on shore with my gun and view the interior of the country lying between the river and the Corvus Creek. ... the shortness and virdu[r]e of grass gave the plain the appearance throughout it's whole extent of beatifull bowling-green in fine order. ... this senery already rich pleasing and beatiful was still farther hightened by immence berds of Buffaloe, deer Elk and Antelopes which we saw in every direction feeding on the hills and plains. I do not think I exagerate when I estimate the number of Buffaloe which could be compre[hend]ed at one view to amount to 3000. my object was if possible to kill a female Antelope ... it appeared reather the rappid flight of birds than the motion of quadrupeds. I think I can safely venture the asscertion that the speed of this anamal is equal if not superior to that of the finest blooded courser.
September 11, 1804
here the Man who left us with the horses 22 (16) days ago George Shannon He started 26 Augt.) and has been a head ever since joined us nearly Starved to Death, he had been 12 days without any thing to eate but Grapes & one Rabit, which he Killed by shooting a piece of hard Stick in place of a ball. ... thus a man had like to have Starved to death in a land of Plenty for the want of Bullitts or Something to kill his meat. ... I saw Several foxes & Killed a Elk & 2 Deer & Squirels. the men with me killed an Elk, 2 Deer & a Pelican
September 16, 1804
deturmined to dry our wet thi[n]gs and liten the boat which we found Could not proceed with the present load ... for this purpose we concluded to detain the Perogue we had intended to send back & load her out of the boat & detain the Soldiers untill Spring & Send them from our Winter quarters.
I gave out a flannel Shirt to each man, & powder to those who had expended thers.
September 17, 1804
Colter Killed a Goat like the one I killed and a curious kind of Deer (Mule Deer) of a Dark gray Colr. more so than common, ... this Spec[i]es of Deer jumps like a goat or Sheep
September 17, 1804
Having for many days past confined myself to the boat, I determined to devote this day to amuse myself on shore with my gun and view the interior of the country lying between the river and the Corvus Creek. ... the shortness and virdu[r]e of grass gave the plain the appearance throughout it's whole extent of beatifull bowling-green in fine order. ... this senery already rich pleasing and beatiful was still farther hightened by immence herds of Buffaloe, deer Elk and Antelopes which we saw in every direction feeding on the hills and plains. I do not think I exagerate when I estimate the number of Buffaloe which could be compre[hend]ed at one view to amount to 3000. my object was if possible to kill a female Antelope ... we found the Antelope extreemly shye and watchfull-insomuch that we had been unable to get a shot at them; ... I had this day an opportunity of witnessing the agility and the superior fleetness of this anamal which was to me really astonishing. ... it appeared reather the rappid flight of birds than the motion of quadrupeds. I think I can safely venture the asscertion that the speed of this anamal is equal if not superior to that of the finest blooded courser.
September 21, 1804
at half past one o'clock this morning the Sand bar on which we Camped began to under mind and give way which allarmed the Serjeant on Guard, ... we had pushed off but a few minits before the bank under which the Boat & perogus lay give way, which would Certainly have Sunk both Perogues, by the time we made the opsd shore our Camp fell in, ... proceeded on to the Gouge at this Great bend
September 25, 1804
(About the Teton Sioux)
... we gave them 1/4 glass of whiskey which they appeared to be verry fond of, Sucked the bottle after it was out & Soon began to be troublesom, one of the 2d Cheif assumeing Drunkness, as a Cloake for rascally intentions ... as Soon as I landed the Perogue three of their young Men Seased the Cable of the Perogue, the Chiefs Soldr [each Chief had a soldier] Huged the mast, and the 2d Chief was verry insolent both in words & jestures ... declareing I should not go on, Stateing he had not receved presents sufficent from us, his justures were of Such a personal nature I felt My self Compeled to Draw my Sword (and made a Signal to the boat to prepare for action) ... I felt My Self warm & Spoke in very positive terms.
... the perogue Soon returned with about 12 of our determined men ready for any event. ... Their treatment to me was verry rough & I think justified roughness on my part,
September 27, 1804
... the Cable & broke it which obliged me to order in a loud voice all hands up at their ores. ... In about 10 minits the bank was lined with men armed the 1st Cheif at their head, ... the misfortune of the loss of our Anchor obliged us to Lay under a falling bank much esposed to the accomplishment of their hostile intentions, ... the Maha Prisoners informed him we were to be Stoped. ... we kept a strong guard all night in the boat, no Sleep
September 28, 1804
... the Soldiers took possession of the Cable ... after much Dificuelty -- which had nearly reduced us to necessity to hostilities I threw a Carrot of Tobacco to the 1st Chief ... Spoke so as to touch his pride ... I am verry unwell for want of Sleep Deturmined to Sleep to night if possible, the Men Cooked & we rested well.
October 9, 1804
... much astonished at my black Servent, who did not lose the opportunity of [displaying -- Ed.] his powers Strength &c. &c. this nation never Saw a black man before.
October 10, 1804
... after the Council was over we Shot the air guns which astonished them much, the[y] then Departed and we rested Secure all night, Those Indians wer much astonished at my Servent, they never Saw a black man before, all flocked around him & examind him from top to toe, he Carried on the joke and made himself more turribal than we wished him to doe. Those Indians are not fond of Spirts Licquer. of any kind.
October 10, 1804
Wednesday. The weather was this day fine, and as we were desirous of assembling the whole nation at once, we despatched Mr. Gravelines, who with Mr. Tabeau another French trader had breakfasted with us, to invite the chiefs of the two upper villages to a conference. They all assembled at one o'clock, and after the usual ceremonies we addressed them in the same way in which we had already spoken to the Ottoes and Sioux: we then made or acknowledged three chiefs, one for each of the three villages; giving to each a flag, a medal, a red coat, a cocked hat and feather, also some goods, paint and tobacco, which they divided among themselves: after this the airgun was exhibited, very much to their astonishment, nor were they less surprised at the colour and manner of York. On our side we were equally gratified at discovering that these Ricaras made use of no spirituous liquors of any kind, the example of the traders who bring it to them so far from tempting having in fact disgusted them. Supposing that it was as agreeable to them as to the other Indians, we had at first offered them whiskey; but they refused it with this sensible remark, that they were surprised that their father should present to them a liquor which would make them fools. On another occasion they observed to Mr. Tabeau, that no man could be their friend who tried to lead them into such follies.
October 12, 1804
(Re: tribes of the Panies)
Those people are Durtey, Kind, pore, & extravigent. pursessing national pride, not beggarley recive what is given with great pleasure, Live in warm houses, large and built in an oxigon [octagon] ... The Seaux who trade the goods which they get of the Britush Traders for their Corn, and [have] great influence over the Rickeres, poison their minds and keep them in perpetial dread.
a curious custom with the Souix as well as the rickeres is to give handsom squars to those whome they wish to Show some acknowledgements to. The Seauex we got clare of without taking their squars, they followed us with Squars two days. The Rickores we put off dureing the time we were at the Towns but 2 [handsom young] Squars were Sent by a man to follow us, they came up this evening, and pursisted in their civilities.
October 13, 1804
one man J. Newmon confined for mutinous expression ... 2 Stones resembling humane persons & one resembling a Dog is Situated in the open Prarie, ... all turned to Stone gradually, commenceing at the feet. ... on the river near the place those are Said to be Situated, we obsd. a greater quantity of fine grapes than I ever Saw in one place.
we Tried the Prisoner Newmon last night by 9 of his Peers they did "Centence him 75 Lashes & Disbanded [from] the party."
October 14, 1804
The punishment of this day allarmd. the Indian Chief verry much, he cried aloud I explained the Cause of the punishment and the necessity (of it) which he (also) thought examples were also necessary, & he himself had made them by Death, his nation never whiped even their Children, from their burth.
October 15, 1804
Those people are much pleased with my black Servent. Their womin verry fond of carressing our men &c.
October 25, 1804
... passed (1) the 3rd old Village of the Mandans which has been Desd. for many years, ... this man has two little fingers off; on inquireing the cause, was told it was customary for this nation to Show their greaf by some testimony of pain, and that it was not uncommon for them to take off 2 Smaller fingers of the hand (at the 2d joints) and some times more with other marks of Savage effection
... verry cold R. Fields with the Rhumitism in his neck, P. Crusat with the Same complaint in his Legs -- the party other wise is well, as to my self I feel but slight Simptoms of that disorder at this time,
October 29, 1804
The Prarie was Set on fire (or caught by accident) by a young man of the Mandins, the fire went with such velocity that it burnt to death a man & woman, who Could not get to any place of Safty, one man a woman & Child much burnt and Several narrowly escaped the flame. ... The couse of his being Saved was a Green buffalow Skin was thrown over him by his mother who perhaps had more fore Sight for the pertection of her Son, and [l]ess for herself than those who escaped the flame, the Fire did not burn under the Skin leaveing the grass round the boy. This fire passed our Camp last [night] about 8 oClock P.M. it went with great rapitidity and looked Tremendioius
October 31, 1804
(Re: Mandan Chief visiting)
Said he believed what we had told them, and that peace would be general, which not only gave him Satisfaction but all his people, they now could hunt without fear, & ther womin could work in the fields without looking everry moment for the enemey, and put off their mockersons at night, ...
... the Grand Chief of the Mandans came Dressed in the Clothes we had given with his 2 small Suns, and requested to See the men Dance which they verry radily gratified him in, ...
November 4, 1804
a Mr. Chaubonie (Charbonneau), interpeter for the Gross Ventre nation Came to See us, and informed that the came Down with Several Indians from a hunting expidition up the river, ... this man wished to hire as an interpiter, ...
November 20, 1804
We this day moved into our huts which are now completed. This place which we call Fort Mandan, is situated in a point of low ground, on the north side of the Missouri, covered with tall and heavy cotton wood. The works consist of two rows of huts or sheds, forming an angle where they joined each other; each row containing four rooms, of fourteen feet square and seven feet high, with plank ceiling, and the roof slanting so as to form a loft above the rooms, the highest part of which is eighteen feet from the
December 7, 1804
The wind still continued from the northwest and the day is very cold: Shahaka [Big White] the chief of the lower village came to apprise us that the buffalo were near, and that his people were waiting for us to join them in the chase: captain Clark with fifteen men went out and found the Indians engaged in killing the buffalo, the hunters mounted on horseback and armed with bows and arrows encircle the herd, and gradually drive them into a plain or an open place fit for the movement of horse; they then ride in among them, and singling out a buffalo, a female being preferred, go as close as possible and wound her with arrows till they think they have given the mortal stroke; when they pursue another till the quiver is exhausted. If, which rarely happens, the wounded buffalo attacks the hunter, he evades his blow by the agility of his horse which is trained for the combat with great dexterity. When they have killed the requisite number they collect their game, and the squaws and attendants come up from the rear and skin and dress the animals. Captain Clark killed ten buffalo, of which five only were brought to the fort, the rest which could not be conveyed home being seized by the Indians, among whom the custom is that whenever a buffalo is found dead without an arrow or any particular mark, he is the property of the finder; so that often a hunter secures scarcely any of the game he kills if the arrow happens to fall off; whatever is left out at night falls to the share of the wolves, who are the constant and numerous attendants of the buffalo. The river closed opposite the fort last night, [with ice] an inch and a half in thickness. In the morning the thermometer stood at one degree below 0. Three men were badly frostbitten in consequence of their exposure.
December 17, 1804
The weather to-day was colder than any we had yet experienced, the thermometer at sunrise being 45 degrees below 0, and about eight o'clock it fell to 74 degrees below the freezing point. From Mr. Haney, who is a very sensible intelligent man, we obtained much geographical information with regard to the country between the Missouri and Mississippi, and the various tribes of Sioux who inhabit it.
January 10, 1805
about 10 oClock the boy about 13 years of age Came to the fort with his feet frosed and had layed out last night without fire with only a Buffalow Robe to Cover him, ... we had his feet put in cold water and they are Comeing too. ... Customs & the habits of those people has anured [them] to bare more Cold than I thought it possible for man to endure.
January 27, 1805
... I bleed the man with the Plurisy to day & Swet him, Capt. Lewis took off the Toes of one foot of the Boy who got frost bit Some time ago, ...
February 11, 1805
about five Oclock this evening one of the wives of Charbono was delivered of a fine boy. it is worthy of remark that this was the first child which this woman had boarn, and as is common in such cases her labour was tedious and the pain violent; Mr. Jessome informed me that he had freequently admininstered a small portion of the rattle of the rattle-snake, which he assured me had never failed to produce the desired effect, that of hastening the birth of the child; having the rattle of a snake by me I gave it to him and he administered two rings of it to the woman broken in small pieces with the fingers and added to a small quantity of water. Whether this medicine was truly the cause or not I shall not undertake to determine, but I was informed that she had not taken it more than ten minutes before she brought forth perhaps this remedy may be worthy of future experiments, but I must confess that I want faith as to it's efficacy.
March 11, 1805
We have every reason to believe that our Menetarre interpeter (whome we intended to take with his wife, as an interpeter through his wife to the Snake Indians of which nation She is) has been Corrupted by the [blank in MS] Company &c. Some explenation has taken place which Clearly proves to us the fact, we give him to night to reflect and deturmin whether or not he intends to go with us under the regulations Stated.
March 12, 1805
our Interpeter Shabonah, deturmins on not proceeding with us as interpeter under the terms mentioned yesterday, he will not agree to work let our Situation be what it may nor Stand a guard, and if miffed with any man he wishes to return when he pleases, also have the disposal of as much provisions as he Chuses to Carry in admissable and we Suffer him to be off the engagement which was only virbal
March 17, 1805
Mr. Chabonah Sent a frenchman of our party [to say] that he was Sorry for the foolish part he had acted and if we pleased he would accompany us agreeabley to the terms we had perposed and doe every thing we wished him to doe &c. &c. ... we called him in and Spoke to him on the Subject, he agreed to our tirms and we agreed that he might go on with us &c.
April 17, 1805
there were three beaver taken this morning by the party. the men prefer the flesh of this anamal, to that of any other which we have, or are able to procure at this moment. I eat very heartily of the beaver myself, and think it excellent; particularly the tale, and liver ...
April 24, 1805
The wind blew so hard during the whole of this day, that we were unable to move. ... Soar eyes is a common complaint among the party. I believe it origenates from the immence quantities of sand which is driven by the wind from the sandbars of the river in such clouds that you are unable to discover the opposite bank of the river in many instances. ... so penitrating is this sand that we cannot keep any article free from it; in short we are compelled to eat, drink, and breath it very freely. my pocket watch, is out of order, she will run only a few minutes without stoping. I can discover no radical defect in her works, and must therefore attribute it to the sand, with which, she seems plentifully charged, notwithstanding her cases are double and tight.
April 25, 1805
the buffaloe Elk and Antelope are so gentle that we pass near them while feeding, without apearing to excite any alarm among them; and when we attract their attention, they frequently approach us more nearly to discover what we are, and in some instances pursue us a considerable distance apparenly with that view.
April 29, 1805
(Meeting with two bear)
... the other after my firing on him pursued me seventy or eighty yards, but fortunately had been so badly wounded that he was unable to pursue so closely as to prevent my charging my gun; we again repeated our fir[e] and killed him. ... it is a much more furious and formidable anamal, and will frequently pursue the hunter when wounded. it is asstonishing to see the wounds they will bear before they can be put to death. the Indians may well fear this anamal equiped as they generally are with their bows and arrows or indifferent fuzees, but in the hands of skillfull riflemen they are by no means as formidable or dangerous as they have been represented. ...
April 29, 1805
We proceeded early with a moderate wind: captain Lewis who was on shore with one hunter met about eight o'clock two white [grizzly] bears: of the strength and ferocity of this animal, the Indians had given us dreadful accounts: they never attack him but in parties of six or eight persons, and even then are often defeated with the loss of one or more of the party. Having no weapons but bows and arrows, and the bad guns with which the traders supply them, they are obliged to approach very near to the bear; and as no wound except through the head or heart is mortal, they frequently fall a sacrifice if they miss their aim. He rather attacks than avoids amen, and such is the terror which he has inspired, that the Indians who go in quest of him paint themselves and perform all the superstitious rites customary when they make war on a neighbouring nation. Hitherto those we had seen did not appear desirous of encountering us, but although to a skilful rifleman the danger is very much diminished, yet the white bear is still a terrible animal: on approaching these two, both captain Lewis and the hunter fired and each wounded a bear: one of them made his escape; the other turned upon captain Lewis and pursued him seventy or eighty yards, but being badly wounded he could not run so fast as to prevent him from reloading his piece, which he again aimed at him, and a third shot from the hunter brought him to the ground: he was a male not quite full grown, and weighed about three hundred pounds: the legs are somewhat longer than those of the black bear, and the talons and tusks much larger and stronger. The testicles are also placed much farther forward and suspended in separate pouches from two to four inches asunder, while those of the black bear are situated back between the thighs and in a single pouch like those of the dog: its colour is a yellowish brown, the eyes small, black, and piercing, the front of the fore legs near the feet is usually black, and the fur is finer, thicker, and deeper than that of the black bear:
May 2, 1805
... snow ... being about one inch deep, ... the flesh of the beaver is esteemed a delecacy among us; I think the tale a most delicious morsal, when boiled it resembles in flavor the fresh tongues and sounds of the codfish, and is usually sufficiently large to afford a plentifull meal for two men.
May 4, 1805
I saw immence quantities of buffaloe in every direction, also some Elk deer and goats; having an abundance of meat on hand I passed them without firing on them; they are extreemly gentle the bull buffaloe particularly will scarcely give way to you. I passed several in the open plain within fifty paces, they viewed me for a moment as something novel and then very unconcernedly continued to feed.
Joseph Fields was very sick today with the disentary had a high fever I gave him a doze of Glauber salts, which operated very well, in the evening his fever abated and I gave him 30 drops of laudnum.
May 4, 1805
Captain Clark and one of the hunters met this evening the largest brown beer we have seen. As they fired he did not attempt to attack, but fled with a most tremendous roar, and such was its extraordinary tenacity of life, that although he had five balls passed through his lungs and five other wounds, he swam more than half across the river to a sandbar, and survived twenty minutes. He weighed between five and six hundred pounds at least, and measured eight feet seven inches and a half from the nose to the extremity of the hind feet, five feet ten inches and a half round the breast, three feet eleven inches round the neck, one foot eleven inches round the middle of the foreleg, and his talons, five on each foot, were four inches and three eighths in length. It differs from the common black bear in having its talons much longer and more blunt; its tail shorter; its hair of a reddish or bay brown, longer, finer, and more abundant; his liver, lungs, and heart, much larger even in proportion to his size, the heart particularly being equal to that of a large ox; his maw ten times larger; his testicles pendant from the belly and in separate pouches four inches apart: besides fish and flesh he feeds on roots, and every kind of wild fruit.
May 5, 1805
(Wolf) ... we scracely see a gang of buffaloe without observing a parsel of those faithfull shepherds on their skirts in readiness to take care of the mamed wounded. ...
Capt. Clark and Drewyer killed the largest brown bear this evening which we have yet seen. it was a most tremendious looking anamal, and extreemly hard to kill notwithstanding he had five balls through his lungs and five others in various parts he swam more than half the distance across the river to a sandbar, & it was at least twenty minutes before he died; he did not attempt to attack, but fled and made the most tremendous roaring from the moment he was shot. We had no means of weighing this monster; ... this bear differs from the common black bear in several respects; it's tallons are much longer and more flont, it's tale shorter, it's hair which is of a redish or bey brown, is longer thicker and finer than that of the black bear; his liver lungs and heart are much larger even in proportion with his size; the heart particularly was as large as that of a large Ox. his maw was also ten times the size of black bear, and was filled with flesh and fish.
The party killed two Elk and a Buffaloe today, and my dog caught a goat, ...
May 5, 1805
... Killed the bear, which was verry large and a turrible looking animal, which we found verry hard to kill we Shot ten Balls into him before we killed him, & 5 of those Balls through his lights This animal is the largest of the carnivorous kind I ever saw ...
May 6, 1805
... passed three streames today which discharged themselves on the Lard side; ... we called it Big dry Creek, ... I find that the curiossity of our party is pretty well satisfyed with rispect to this anamal, the formidable appearance of the male bear killed on the 5th added to the difficulty with which they die when even shot through the vital parts, has staggered the resolution [of] several of them, others however seem keen for action with the bear; I expect these gentlemen will give us some amusement sho[r]tly as they [the bears -- Ed.] soon begin now to coppolate [copulate]. ... it is now only amusement for Capt. C. and myself to kill as much meat as the party can consum; ...
May 9, 1805
This stream (if such it can properly be termed) we called Big dry river. ... Charbono calls the boudin (poudingue) blanc, ... this white pudding we all esteem one of the greatest del[ic]acies of the forrest, ...
we saw a great quantity of game today particularly of Elk and Buffaloe, the latter are now so gentle that the men frequently throw sticks and stones at them in order to drive them out of the way. ... the river for several days has been as wide as it is generally near it's mouth, tho' it is much shallower or I should begin to dispair of ever reaching it's source; ... the water also appears to become clearer, it has changed it's complexin very considerably. I begin to feel extreemly anxious to get in view of the rocky mountains.
May 10, 1805
Boils and imposthumes [i.e. abscesses] have been very common with the party ... soar eyes continue also to be common to all of us in a greater or less degree. for the imposthume I use emmolient poltices, and for soar eyes a solution of white vitriol and the sugar of lead in the proportion of 2 grs of the former and one of the latter to each ounce of water.
May 11, 1805
About 5 P.M. my attention was struck by one of the party running at a distance towards us and making signs and hollowing as if in distress, ... I now found that it was Bratton ... at length he informed me ... below us he had shot a brown bear which immediately turned on him and pursued him a considerable distance but he had wounded it so badly that it could not overtake him; ... it was a monstrous beast, not quite so large as that we killed a few days past but in all other rispects much the same ... we now found that Bratton had shot him through the center of the lungs, notwithstanding which he had pursued him near half a mile and had returned more than double that distance and with his tallons had prepared himself a bed in the earth of about 2 feet deep and five long and was perfectly alive when we found him which could not have been less than 2 hours after he received the wound; these bear being so hard to die reather intimedates us all; I must confess that I do not like the gentlemen and had reather fight two Indians than one bear;
May 12, 1805
... I have therefore come to a resolution to act on the defencive only, should I meet these gentlemen in the open country.
May 14, 1805
... the bear pursued and had very nearly overtaken them before they reached the river; ... in this manner he pursued two of them seperately so close that they were obliged to throw aside their guns and pouches and throw themselves into the river altho' the bank was nearly twenty feet perpendicular; so enraged was this anamal that he plunged into the river only a few feet behind the second man he had compelled [to] take refuge in the water, when one of those who still remained on shore shot him through the head and finally killed him; ... they found eight balls had passed through him in different directions; ... It happened unfortunately for us this evening that Charbono was at the helm of this Perogue, in stead of Drewyer, who had previously steered her; Charbono cannot swim and is perhaps the most timid waterman in the world; ... in short almost every article indispensibly necessary to further the views, or insure the success of the enterprize in which we are now launched ... when a sudon squawl of wind struck her obliquely, and turned her considerably, the steersman allarmed, in stead of puting, her before the wind, lufted her up into it, the wind was so violent that it drew the brace of the squarsail out of the hand of the man who was attending it, and instantly upset the perogue and would have turned her completely topsaturva, had it not have been from the resistance mad[e] by the oarning against the water; ...the perogue then wrighted but had filled within an inch of the gunwals; Charbono still crying to his god for mercy, had not yet recollected the rudder, nor could the repeated orders of the Bowsman, Cruzat, bring him to his recollection untill he threatend to shoot him instantly if he did not take hold of the rudder and do his duty, ... had I undertaken this project therefore, there was a hundred to one but what I should have paid the forfit of my life for the madness of my project, but this had the perogue been lost, I should have valued but little. ... accordingly took a drink of grog and gave each man a gill of sperits.
May 14, 1805
Towards evening the men in the hindmost canoes discovered a large brown bear lying in the open grounds, about three hundred paces from the river: six of them, all good hunters, immediately went to attack him, and concealing themselves by a small eminence came unperceived within forty paces of him: four of the hunters now fired, and each lodged a ball in his body, two of them directly through the lungs: the furious animal sprung up and ran openmouthed upon them; as he came near, the two hunters who had reserved their fire gave him two wounds, one of which breaking his shoulder retarded his motion for a moment; but before they could reload he was so near that they were obliged to run to the river, and before they reached it he had almost overtaken them: two jumped into the canoe; the other four separated, and concealing themselves in the willows fired as fast as each could reload: they struck him several times, but instead of weakening the monster each shot seemed only to direct him towards the hunter, till at last he pursued two of them so closely, that they threw aside their guns and pouches, and jumped down a perpendicular bank of twenty feet into the river; the bear sprang after them, and was within a few feet of the hindmost, when one of the hunters on shore shot him in the head and finally killed him. They dragged him to the shore, and found that eight balls had passed through him in different directions; the bear was old and the meat tough, so that they took the skin only, and rejoined us at camp, where we had been as much terrified by an accident of a different kind.
May 17, 1805
we employed the toe line the greater part of the day; the banks were firm and shore boald which favoured the uce of the cord. I find this method of asscending the river, when the shore is such as will permit it, the safest and most expeditious mode of traveling, except with sails in a steady and favourable breze. we were roused late at night by the Sergt. of the guard, and warned of the danger we were in from a large tree that had taken fire and which leant immediately over our lodge. ... had we been a few minutes later we should have been crushed to attoms.
May 19, 1805
one of the party wounded a beaver, and my dog as usual swam in to catch it; the beaver bit him through the hind leg and cut the artery; it was with great difficulty that I could stop the blood; I fear it will yet prove fatal to him.
May 24, 1805
The water standing in the vessels freized during the night 1/8 of an inch thick, ...
the air is so pure in this open country that moutains and other elivated objects appear much nearer than they really are; these mountains do not appear to be further than 15 M. we sent a man up this creek to explore the country he returned late in the evening and informed that he had proceeded ten miles directly towards these mountains and that he did not think himself by any mean[s] half way these mountains are rockey and covered with some scattering pine.
May 26, 1805
while I viewed these mountains I felt a secret pleasure in finding myself so near the head of the heretofore conceived boundless Missouri; but when I reflected on the difficulties which this snowey barrier would most probably throw in my way to the Pacific, and the sufferings and hardships of myself and party in thim, it in some measure counterballanced the joy I had felt in the first moments in which I gazed on them; but as I have always held it a crime to anticipate evils I will believe it a good comfortable road untill I am compelled to believe differently. it was after Dark before we finished butchering the buffaloe, and on my return to camp I trod within [a] few inches of a rattle snake but being in motion I passed before he could probably put himself in a striking attitude and fortunately excaped his bite, I struck about with my espontoon being directed in some measure by his nois untill I killed him.
May 29, 1805
Last night we were all allarmed by a large buffaloe Bull, which swam over from the opposite shore and coming along side of the white perogue, climbed over it to land, he then allarmed ran up the bank in full speed directly towards the fires, and was within 18 inches of the heads of some of the men who lay sleeping before the centinel could allarm him or make him change his course, still more alarmed, he now took his direction immediately towards our lodge, passing between 4 fires and within a few inches of the heads of one range of the men as they yet lay sleeping, when he came near the tent, my dog saved us by causing him to change his course a second time, which he did by turning a little to the right, and was quickly out of sight, leaving us by this time all in an uproar with our guns in o[u]r hands, enquiring of each other the ca[u]se of the alarm, which after a few moments was explained by the centinel: we were happy to find no one hirt. The next morning we found that the buffaloe in passing the perogue had trodden on a rifle, which belonged to Capt. Clark's black man, who had negligently left her in the perogue, the rifle was much bent, he had also broken the spindle; pivit, and shattered the stock of one of the blunderbushes on board, ... it appears that the white perogue which contains our most valuable stores is attended by some evil gennii.
June 2, 1805
the bear was very near catching Drewyer; it also pursued Carbono who fired his gun in the air as he ran but fortunately eluded the vigilence of the bear by secreting himself very securely in the bushes untill Drewyer finally killed it by a shot in the head; the (only) shot indeed that will conquer the farocity of those tremendious anamals.
June 3, 1805
An interesting question was now to be determined; which of these rivers was the Missouri, or that river which the Minnetares call Amahte Arz zha or Missouri, and which they had discribed to us as approaching very near to the Columbia river. to mistake the stream at this period of the season, two months of the traveling season having now elapsed, and to ascend such stream to the rocky Mountain or perhaps much further before we could inform ourselves whether it did approach the Columbia or not, and then be obliged to return and take the other stream would not only loose us the whole of this season but would probably so dishearten the party that it might defeat the expedition altogether. ...an investigation of both streams was the first thing to be done; ... accordingly we dispatched two light canoes with three men in each up those streams; we also sent out several small parties by land with instructions to penetrate the country as far as they conveniently can permitting themselves time to return this evening and indeavour if possible to discover the distant bearing of those rivers by ascending the rising grounds. ... the country in every derection around us was one vast plain in which innumerable herds of Buffalow were seen attended by their shepperds the wolves; the solatary antelope which now had their young were distributed over it's face; some herds of Elk were also seen; the verdure perfectly cloathed the ground, the weather was pleasent and fair;
saw the yellow and red courants, not yet ripe; also the goosberry which begins to ripen; the wild rose which grows here in great abundance in the bottoms of all these rivers is now in full bloom, and adds not a little to the bea[u]ty of the cenery. ... in short the air & character of this river is so precisely that of the missouri below that the party with very few exceptions have already pronounced the N. fork to be the Missouri; myself and Capt. C. not quite so precipitate have not yet decided but if we were to give our opinions I believe we should be in the minority, certain it is that the North fork gives the colouring matter and character which is retained from hence to the gulph of Mexico. ... convinced I am that if it penetrated the Rocky Mountains to any great distance it's waters would be clearer unless it should run an immence distance indeed after leaving those mountains through these level plains in order to acquire it's turbid hue. ... thus have our cogitating faculties been busily employed all day.
Those who have remained at camp today have been busily engaged in dressing skins for cloathing, notwithstanding that many of them have their feet so mangled and bruised with the stones and rough ground over which they passed barefoot, that they can scarcely walk or stand; at least it is with great pain they do either. for some days past they were unable to wear their mockersons; they have fallen off considerably, but notwithstanding the difficulties past, or those which seem now to mennace us, they still remain perfectly cheerfull.
I had now my sack and blanket happerst in readiness to swing on my back, which is the first time in my life that I had ever prepared a burthen of this kind, and I am fully convinced that it will not be the last.
June 9, 1805
The Indian information also argued strongly in favour of the South fork. they informed us that the water of the Missouri was nearly transparent at the great falls, this is the case with the water of the South fork;
Those ideas as they occurred to me I indevoured to impress on the minds of the party all of whom except Capt. C. being still firm in the belief that the N. Fork was the Missouri and that which we ought to take; they said very cheefully that they were ready to follow us any wher[e] we thought proper to direct but that they still thought that the other was the river and that they were affraid that the South fork would soon termineate in the mountains and leave us at a great distance from the Columbia. ... finding them so determined in this beleif, and wishing that if we were in an error to be able to detect it and rectify it as soon as possible it was agreed between Capt. C. and myself that one of us should set out with a small party by land up the South fork and continue our rout up it untill we found the falls or reached the snowy Mountains by which means we should be enabled to determine this question prety accurately.
I felt myself very unwell this morning and took a portion of salts from which I feel much releif this evening. ... In the evening Cruzatte gave us some music on the violin and the men passed the evening in dancing singing &c and were extreemly cheerfull.
June 10, 1805
Sah-cah-gah, we a, our Indian woman is very sick this evening; Capt. C. blead her.
June 10, 1805
Sahcahgagwea our Indian woman verry sick I blead her, ...
June 11, 1805
I was taken with such violent pain in my intestens that I was unable to partake of the feast of marrowbones. my pain still increased and towards evening was attended with a high fever; ... having brought no medecine with me I resolved to try an experiment with some simples; ... by 10 in the evening I was entirely releived from pain and in fact every symptom of the disorder forsook me; my fever abated, a gentle perspiration was produced and I had a comfortable and refreshing nights rest. Goodrich who is remarkably fond of fishing caught several douzen fish of two different species ...
June 11, 1805
the Indian woman verry sick, I blead her which appeared to be of great service to her,
June 12, 1805
... we met with two large bear, and killed them boath at the first fire, a circumstance which I beleive has never happend with the party in killing the brown bear before. ... we had a most beatifull and picturesk view of the Roecy mountsins which wer perfectly covered with Snow ... each succeeding range rising higher than the preceding one untill the most distant appear to loose their snowey tops in the clouds; this was an august spectacle and still rendered more formidable by the recollection that we had them to pass.
June 13, 1805
... my ears were saluted with the agreeable sound of a fall of water and advancing a little further I saw the spray arrise above the plain like a collumn of smoke which would frequently dispear again in an instant caused I presume by the wind which blew pretty hard from the S.W. I did not however loose my direction to this point which soon began to make a roaring too tremendious to be mistaken for any cause short of the great falls of the Missouri. ... to gaze on this sublimely grand specticle ... formes the grandest sight I ever beheld, ... irregular and somewhat projecting rocks below receives the water in it's passage down and brakes it into a perfect white foam which assumes a thousand forms in a moment sometimes flying up in jets of sparkling foam to the hight of fifteen or twenty feet and are scarcely formed before large roling bodies of the same beaten and foaming water is thrown over and conceals them. ... from the reflection of the sun on the sprey or mist which arrises from these falls there is a beatifull rainbow produced which adds not a little to the beauty of this majestically grand senery. after wrighting this imperfect discription I again viewed the falls and was so much disgusted with the imperfect idea which it conveyed of the scene that I determined to draw my pen across it and begin agin, but then reflected that I could not perhaps succeed better than pening the first impressions of the mind; I wished for the pencil of Salvator Rosa [a Titian] or the pen of Thompson, that I might be enabled to give to the enlightened world some just idea of this truly magnifficent and sublimely grand object which has from the commencement of time been concealed from the view of civilized man; ... of it's kind I will venture to ascert is second to but one in the known world.
... the grizly bear we have never yet seen.
My fare is really sumptuous this evening; buffaloe's humps, tongues and marrowbones, fine trout parched meal pepper and salt, and a good appetite; the last is not considered the least of the luxuries.
June 14, 1805
I now thought that if a skillfull painter had been asked to make a beautifull cascade that he would most probably have p[r]esented the precise immage of this one; nor could I for some time determine on which of those two great cataracts to bestoe the palm, on this or that which I had discovered yesterday; at length I determined between these two great rivals for glory that this was pleasingly beautifull, while the other was sublimely grand
I scelected a fat buffaloe and shot him very well, through the lungs; while I was gazeing attentively on the poor anamal discharging blood in streams from his mouth and nostrils, expecting him to fall every instant, and having entirely forgotten to reload my rifle, a large white, or reather brown bear, had perceived and crept on me within 20 steps before I discovered him; in the first moment I drew up my gun to shoot, but at the same instant recolected that she was not loaded and that he was too near for me to hope to perform this opperation before he reached me, as he was then briskly advancing on me; it was an open level plain, not a bush within miles nor a tree within less than three hundred yards of me; the river bank was sloping and not more than three feet above the level of the water; in short there was no place by means of which I could conceal myself from this monster until I could charge my rifle; ... I had no sooner terned myself about but he pitched at me, open mouthed and full speed, I ran about 80 yards and found he gained on me fast, I then run into the water the idea struk me to get into the water to such debth that I could stand and he would be obliged to swim, and that I could in that situation defend myself with my espontoon; accordingly I ran haistily into the water about waist deep, and faced about and presented the point of my espontoon, at this instant he arrived at the edge of the water within about 20 feet of me; the moment I put myself in this attitude of defence he sudonly wheeled about as if frightened, declined the combat on such unequal grounds, and retreated with quite as great precipitation as he had just before pursued me.
... It now seemed to me that all the beasts of the neighbourhood had made a league to distroy me, or that some fortune was disposed to amuse herself at my expence, for I had not proceded more than three hundred yards from the burrow of this tyger cat, before three bull buffaloe, which wer feeding with a large herd about half a mile from me on my left, seperated from the herd and ran full speed towards me, ... at sometimes for a moment I thought it might be a dream, but the prickley pears which pierced my feet very severely once in a while, particularly after it grew dark, convinced me that I was really awake, and that it was necessary to make the best of my way to camp.
June 15, 1805
our Indian woman sick & low spirited I gave her the bark & apply it exteranely to her region which revived her much. ... aded to those dificuelties the rattle snakes [are] inumerable & require great caution to prevent being bitten. ... the Indian woman much wors this evening, she will not take any medison, her husband petetions to return &c, ...
June 16, 1805
... I reached the camp found the Indian woman extreemly ill and much reduced by her indisposition. this gave me some concern as well for the poor object herself, then with a young child in her arms, as from the consideration of her being our only dependence for a friendly negociation with the Snake Indians on whom we depend for horses to assist us in our portage from the Missouri to the columbia river.
... the Sulpher spring ... the water is as transparent as possible strongly impreganted with sulphur, and I suspect Iron also, as the colour of the hills and bluffs in the neighbourhood indicate the existence of that metal.
I found that two dozes of barks and opium which I had given her since my arrival had produced an alteration in her pulse for the better; they were now much fuller and more regular. I caused her to drink the mineral water altogether. w[h]en I first came down I found that her pulse was scarcely perceptible, very quick frequently irregular and attended with strong nervous symptoms, that of the twitching of the fingers and leaders of the arm; now the pulse had become regular much fuller and a gentle perspiration had taken place; the nervous symptoms have also in a great measure abated, and she feels herself much freer from pain. she complains principally of the lower region of the abdomen, I therefore continued the cataplasms of barks and laudnumn which had been previously used by my friend Capt. Clark. I beleive her disorder originated principally from an obstruction of the mensis in consequence of taking could.
June 19, 1805
... she complained very much and her fever again returned. I rebuked Sharbono severely for suffering her to indulge herself with such food he being privy to it and having been previously told what she must only eat. I now gave her broken dozes of diluted nitre untill it produced perspiration and at 10 P.M. 30 drops of laudnum which gave her a tolerable nights rest. ... After dark my dog barked very much ...
June 20, 1805
we have conceived our party sufficiently small, and therefore have concluded not to dispatch a canoe with a part of our men to St. Louis as we have entended early in the Spring. we fear also that such a measure might also discourage those who would in such case remain, and migh[t] possibly hazard the fate of the expedition. We have never hinted to any one of the party that we had such a scheem in contemplation, and all appear perfectly to have made up their minds to Succeed in the expedition or perish in the attempt. We all believe that we are about to enter on the most perilous and dificuelt part of our Voyage, yet I see no one repineing; all appear ready to meet those dificuelties which await us with resolution and becomeing fortitude.
the Mountains to the N.W. and West of us are still entirely covered are white and glitter with the reflection of the sun. I do not believe that the clouds that pervale at this season of the year reach the summits of those lofty mountains; and if they do the probability is that they deposit snow only for there has been no proceptable diminution of the snow which they contain since we first saw them. I have thought it probable that these mountains might have derived their appellation of Shineing Mountains, from their glittering appearance when the sun shines in certain
directions on the snow which cover them. ...my party repeatedly heard a nois which proceeded from a Direction a little to the N. of West, a loud [noise] and resembling precisely the discharge of a piece of ordinance of 6 pounds at the distance of 5 or six miles. ...I am at a great loss to account for this Phenomenon.
June 23, 1805
this evening the men repaired their mockersons, and put on double souls to protect their feet from the prickley pears. during the late rains the buffaloe have troden up the praire very much which having now become dry the sharp points of earth as hard as frozen ground stand up in such abundance that there is no avoiding them. this is particular[l]y severe on the feet of the men who have not only their own weight to bear in treading on those hacklelike points but have also the addition of the burthen which they draw and which in fact is as much as they can possibly move with. they are obliged to halt and rest frequently for a few minutes, at every halt these poor fellows tumble down and are so much fortiegued that many of them are asleep in an instant; in short their fatiegues are incredible; some are limping from the soreness of their feet, others faint and unable to stand for a few minutes, with heat and fatiegue, yet no one complains, all go with cheerfullness.
June 25, 1805
Fields returned and informed me that he had seen two white bear near the river a few miles above and in attempting to get a shoot [at] them had stumbled uppon a third which immediately made at him being only a few steps distant; that in runing in order to escape from the bear he had leaped down a steep bank of the river on a stony bar where he fell cut his hand bruised his knees and bent his gun, ... this man has been truly unfortunate with these bear, this is the second time that he has narrowly excaped from them.
The party ... which such as were able to shake a foot amused themselves in dancing on the green to the music of the violin which Cruzatte plays extreemly well. ... it is worthy of remark that the winds are sometimes so strong in these plains that the men informed me that they hoisted a sail in the canoe and it had driven her along on the truck wheels. this is really sailing on dry land.
June 29, 1805
... I continued my rout to the fountain ... & think it may well be retained on the list of prodegies of this neighbourhood towards which, nature seems to have dealth with a liberal hand, for I have scarcely experienced a day since my first arrival in this quarter without experiencing some novel occurrence among the party or witnessing the appearance of some uncommon object. I think this fountain the largest I ever beheld, ...
S[h]arbono lost his gun, shot pouch, horn, tomahawk, and my wiping rod, Capt. Clark his Umbrella and compass or circumferenter. ... the men who were all nearly naked and [no] covering on the head were so sorely mawled with the hail which was so large and driven with such force by the wind that it nocked many of them down and one particular[l]y as many as three times most of them were bleeding freely and complained of being much bruised. ... Capt. C. gave the party a dram to console them in some measure for their general defeat.
June 29, 1805
On his arrival there he observed a very dark cloud rising in the west which threatened rain, and looked around for some shelter, but could find no place where they would be secure from being blown into the river if the wind should prove as violent as it sometimes does in the plains. At length about a quarter of a mile above the falls he found a deep ravine where there were some shelving rocks, under which he took refuge. They were on the upper side of the ravine near the river, perfectly safe from the rain, and therefore laid down their guns, compass, and other articles which they carried with them. The shower was at first moderate; it then increased to a heavy rain, the effects of which they did not feel: soon after a torrent of rain and hail descended; the rain seemed to fall in a solid mass, and instantly collecting in the ravine come rolling down in a dreadful current, carrying the mud and rocks, and every thing that opposed it. Captain Clark fortunately saw it a moment before it reached them, and springing up with his gun and shotpouch in his left hand, with his right clambered up the steep bluff, pushing on the Indian woman with her child in her arms; her husband too had seized her hand, and was pulling her up the hill, but he was so terrified at the danger that but for captain Clark, himself and his wife and child would have been lost. So instantaneous was the rise of the water, that before captain Clark had reached his gun and began to ascend the bank, the water was up to his waist, and he could scarce get up faster than it rose, till it reached the height of fifteen feet with a furious current, which had they waited a moment longer would have swept them into the river just above the great falls, down which they must inevitably have been precipitated. They reached the plain in safety, and found York who had separated from them just before the storm to hunt some buffalo, and was now returning to find his master.
July 19, 1805
wh[en]ever we get a view of the lofty summits of the mountains the snow presents itself, altho' we are almost suffocated in this confined vally with heat. ... this evening we entered much the most remarkable clifts that we have yet seen. these clifts rise from the waters edge on either side perpendicularly to the hight of (about) 1200 feet. every object here wears a dark and gloomy aspect. the tow[er]ing and projecting rocks in many places seem ready to rumble on us. the river appears to have forced it's way through this immence body of solid rock for the distance of 5 3/4 Miles and where it makes it's exit below has th[r]own on either side vast collumns of rocks mountains high. ... from the singular appearance of this place I called it the gates of the rocky mounatains.
Capt. C. feell in with a gang of Elk of which he killed 2. and not being able to obtain as much wood as would make a fire substituded the dung of the buffaloe ... prickly pear of the leveler part of the rout much less painfull; they have now become so abundant in the open uplands that it is impossible to avoid them and their thors are so keen and stif that they pearce a double thickness of dressed deers skin with ease. Capt. C. informed me that he extracted 17 of these bryers from his feet this evening after he encamped by the light of the fire. I have guarded or reather fortigyed my feet against them by soaling my mockersons with the hide of the buffaloe in parchment ...
July 28, 1805
... we called the S.W. fork, that which we meant to ascend, Jefferson's River in honor of that illustrious personage Thomas Jefferson. [the author of our enterprize.] the Middle fork we called Madison's River in honor of James Madison, and the S.E. Fork we called Gallitin's River in honor of Albert Gallitin. ... the beds of all these streams are formed of smooth pebble and gravel, and their waters perfectly transparent; in short they are three noble streams.
I had a small bower or booth erected for the comfort of Capt. C.
this affords one of the best winter pastures on earth for horses or cows, and of course will be much in favour of an establishment should it ever be thought necessary to fix one at this place.
Our present camp is precisely on the spot that the Snake Indians were encamped at the time the Minnetares of the Knife R. first came in sight of them five years since. from hence they retreated about three miles up Jeffersons river and concealed themselves in the woods, the Minnetares pursued, attacked them, killed 4 men 4 women a number of boys, and mad[e] prisoners of all the females and four boys, Sah-cah-gar-we-ah o[u]r Indian woman was one of the female prisoners taken at that time; tho' I cannot discover that she shews any immotion of sorrow in recollecting this event, or of joy in being again restored to her native country ; if she has enough to eat and a few trinkets to wear I beleive she would be perfectly content anywhere.
July 31, 1805
nothing killed today and our fresh meat is out. when we have a plenty of fresh meat I find it impossible to make the men take any care of it, or use it with the least frugallity. tho' I expect that necessity will shortly teach them this art. ... we have a lame crew just now, two with tumers or bad boils on various parts of them, one with a bad stone bruise, one with his arm accedently dislocated but fortunately well replaced, and a fifth has streigned his back by sliping and falling backwards on the funwall of the canoe.
July 31, 1805
The only game which we have seen are one bighorn, a few antelopes, deer, and one brown bear, which escaped from our pursuit. Nothing was, however, killed to-day, nor have we had any fresh meat except one beaver for the last two days, so that we are now reduced to an unusual situation, for we have hitherto always had a great abundance of flesh.
August 6, 1805
one of their canoes had just overset and all the baggage wet, the medecine box among other articles and several articles lost a shot pouch and horn with all the implements for one rifle lost and never recovered. ... on their arrival found that two other canoes had filled with water and wet their cargoes completely. Whitehouse had been thrown out of one of the canoes as she swing in a rapid current and the canoe had rubed him and pressed him to the bottom as she passed over him and had the water been 2 inches shallower must inevitably have crushed him to death.
in this country the air is so pure and dry that any vessel however well seasoned the timber may be will give way or shrink unless it is kept full of some liquid.
Shannon had been dispatched up the rapid fork this morning to hunt, ... I am fearful he is lost again.
... called the bold rapid an[d] clear stream Wisdom, and the more mild and placid one which one which flows in from the S.E. Philanthrophy, in commemoration of two of those cardinal virtues, which have so eminently marked that deservedly selibrated character through life.
August 8, 1805
the Indian woman recognized the point of a high plain to our right which she informed us was not very distant from the summer retreat of her nation on a river beyond the mountains which runs to the west. this hill she says her nation calls the beaver's head from a conceived
re[se]mblance of it's figure to the head of that animal. she assures us that we shall either find her people on this river or on the river immediately west of it's source; which from it's present size cannot be very distant. ... it is my resolusion to find them or some others, who have horses if it should cause me a trip of one month. for without horses we shall be obliged to leave a great part of our stores, of which, it appears to me that we have a stock already sufficiently small for the length of the boyage before us.
August 11, 1805
after having marched in this order for about five miles I discovered an Indian on horse back about two miles distant coming down the plain towards us. with my glass I discovered from his dress that he was of a different nation from any that we had yet seen, and was satisfyed of his being a Sosone; his arms were a bow and quivere of arrows, and was mounted on an eligant horse without a saddle, and a small string which was attatched to the under jaw of the horse which answered as a bridle. I was overjoyed at the sight of this stranger and had no doubt of obtaining a friendly introduction to his nation provided I could get near enough to him to convince him of our being whitemen. I therefore proceeded towards him at my usual pace. when I had arrived within about a mile he mad[e] a halt which I did also and unloosing my blanket from my pack, I mad[e] him the signal of friendship known to the Indians of the Rocky mountains and those of the Missouri, which is by holding the mantle or robe in your hands at two corners and then th[r]owing [it] up in the air higher than the head bringing it to the earth as if in the act of spreading it, thus repeating three times ... this signal had not the desired effect, he still kept his position and seemed to view Drewyer an[d] Shields who were now comiming in sight on either hand with an air of suspicion, ... I therefore haistened to take out of my sack some b[e]ads a looking glas and a few trinkets which I had brought with me for this purpose and leaving my gun and pouch with McNeal advanced unarmed towards him. he remained in the same stedfast poisture untill I arrived in about 200 paces of him when he turn[ed] his ho[r]se about and began to move off slowly from me; I now called to him in as loud a voice as I could command repeating the word tab-ba-bone, which in their language signifyes white-man. but l[o]oking over his sholder he still kept his eye on Drewyer and Sheilds who wer still advancing neither of them haveing segacity enough to recollect the impropriety of advancing when they saw me thus in parley with the Indian. I now made a signal to these men to halt, Drewyer obeyed but Shields who afterwards told me that he did not obse[r]ve the signal still kept on the Indian halted again and turned his hor[s]e about as if to wait for me, and I beleive he would have remained untill I came up whith him had it not been for Shields who still pressed forward. whe[n] I arrived within about 150 paces I again repepeated the word tab-ba-bone and held up the trinkits in my hands and striped up my shirt sleve to give him an opportunity of seeing the colour of my skin and advanced leasure[ly] towards him but he did not remain untill I got nearer than about 100 paces when he suddonly turned his ho[r]se about, gave him the whip leaped the creek and disapeared in the willow brush in an instant and with him vanished all my hopes of obtaining horses for the preasent. I now felt quite as much mortification and disappointment as I had pleasure and expectation at the first sight of this indian. I fe[l]t soarly chargrined at the conduct of the men particularly Sheilds to whom I principally attributed this failure in obtaining an introduction to the natives. I now called the men to me and could not forbare abraiding them a little for their want of attention and imprudence on this occasion. ... after meeting with the Indian today I fixed a small flag of the U'.S. to a pole which I made McNeal carry. and planted in the ground where we halted or encamped.
August 13, 1805
... we saw two women, a man and some dogs on an iminence immediately before us. they appeared to v[i]ew us with attention and two of them after a few minutes set down as if to wait our arrival we continued our usual pace towards them. when we had arrived within half a mile of them I directed the party to halt and leaving my pack and rifle I took the flag which I unfurled and a[d]vanced singly towards them the women soon disappeared behind the hill, the man continued untill I arrived within a hundred yards of him and then likewise absconded. ... the dogs were less shye than their masters ... they also soon disappeared. .. we had not continued our rout more than a mile when we were so furtunate as to meet with three female savages. the short and steep ravines which we passed concealed us from each other untill we arrived within 30 paces. a young woman immediately took to flight, an Elderly woman and a girl of about 12 years old remained. I instantly laid by my gun and advanced towards them. they appeared much allarmed but saw that we were to near for them to escape by flight they therefore seated themselves on the ground, holding down their heads as if reconciled to die which the[y] expected no doubt would be their fate; I took the elderly woman by the hand and raised her up repeated the word tab-ba-bone and strip[ped] up my shirt sleve to s[h]ew her my skin; to prove to her the truth of the ascertion that I was a white man for my face and ha[n]ds which have been constantly exposed to the sun were quite as dark as their own. they appeared instantly reconciled, and the men coming up I gave these women some beads a few mockerson awls some pewter looking-glasses and a little paint. ... I now painted their tawny cheeks with some vermillion which with this nation is emblematic of peace. ... we had marched about 2 miles when we met a party of about 60 warriors mounted on excellent horses who came in nearly full speed, when they arrived I advanced towards them with the flag leaving my gun with the party ... these men then advanced and embraced me very affectionately in their way which is by puting their left arm over you[r] wright sholder clasping your back, while they apply their left cheek to yours and frequently vociforate the word ah-hi-e, ah-hi-e that is, I am much pleased, I am much rejoiced. bothe parties now advanced and we wer all carresed and besmeared with their grease and paint till I was heartily tired of the national hug. ...they seated themselves in a circle around us and pulled of[f] their mockersons before they would receive or smoke the pipe. this is a custom among them as I afterwards learned indicative of a sacred obligation of sincerity in their profession of friendship given by the act of receiving and smoking the pipe of a stranger. or which is as much as to say that they wish they may always go bearfoot if they are not sincere; a pretty heavy penalty if they are to march throught the plains of their country.
(Chief Cameahwait) ... I gave him the flag which I informed him was an emblem of peace among whitemen and now that it had been received by him it was to be respected a the bond of union between us.
all the women and children of the camp were shortly collected about the lodge to indulge themselves with looking at us, we being the first white persons they had ever seen. ... we had not taisted any food since the evening before. the Chief informed us that they had nothing but berries to eat and gave us some cakes of serviceberries and Choke cherries which had been dryed in the sun ...
the river was confined between inacessable mountains, was very rapid and rocky insomuch that it was impossible for us to pass either by land or water down this river to the great lake where the white men lived as he had been informed. this was unwelcome information but I still hoped that this account had been exagerated with a view to detain us among them. ... an indian called me in to his bower and gave me a small morsel fo the flesh of an antelope boiled, and a peice of a fresh salmon roasted; both which I eat with a very good relish. this was the first salmon I had seen and perfectly convinced me that we were on the waters of the Pacific Ocean.
August 15, 1805
I hurried the departure of the Indians. the Chief addressed them several times before they would move they seemed very reluctant to accompany me. I at length asked the reason and he told me that some foolish persons among them had suggested the idea that we were in league with the Pahkees and had come on in order to decoy them into an ambuscade where their enimies were waiting to receive them. but that for his part he did not believe it. I readily perceived that our situation was not enterely free from danger as the transicion from suspicion to the confermation of the fact would not be very difficult in the minds of these ignorant people who have been accustomed from their infancy to view every stranger as an enimy. I told Cameahwait that I was sorry to find that they had put so little confidence in us, that I knew they were not acquainted with whitemen and therefore could forgive them. that among whitemen it was considered disgracefull to lye or entrap an enimy by falsehood. ... and that if the bulk of his nation still entertained this opinion I still hoped that there were some among them that were not affraid to die, ... I soon found that I had touched him on the right string; to doubt the bravery of a savage is at once to put him on his metal.
several of the old women were crying and imploring the great sperit to protect their warriors as if they were going to inevitable distruction. we had not proceeded far before our party was augmented by ten or twelve more, and before we reached the Creek which we had passed in the morning of the 13th it appeared to me that we had all the men of the village and a number of women with us. ... they were now very cheerfull and gay, and two hours ago they looked as sirly as so many imps of satturn.
August 16, 1805
when they arrived where the deer was which was in view of me they dismounted and run in tumbling over each other like a parcel of famished dogs each seizing and tearing away a part of the intestens which had been previously thrown out by Drewyer who killed it; the seen was such when I arrived that had I not have had a pretty keen appetite myself I am confident I should not have taisted any part of the venison shortly. each one had a peice of some discription and all eating most ravenously. some were eating the kidnies the melt and liver and the blood runing from the corners of their mouths, others were in a similar situation with the paunch and guts but the exuding substance in this case from their lips was of a different discription. one of the last who att[r]acted my attention particularly had been fortunate in his allotment or reather active in the division, he had provided himself with about nine feet of the small guts one end of which he was chewing on while with his hands he was squezzing the contents out at the other. I really did not untill now think that human nature ever presented itself in a shape so nearly allyed to the brute creation. I viewed these poor starved divils with pity and compassion I directed McNeal to skin the deer and reserved a quarter, the ballance I gave the Chief to be divided among his people; they devoured the whole of it nearly without cooking.
... the Chief with much cerimony put tippets about our necks such as they t[h]emselves woar I redily perceived that this was to disguise us and owed it's origine to the same cause already mentioned. to give them further confidence I put my cocked hat with feather on the chief and my over shirt being of the Indian form my hair deshivled and skin well browned with the sun I wanted no further addition to make me a complete Indian in appearance the men followed my example and we were so[o]n completely metamorphosed. ... I now determined to restore their confidence cost what it might and therefore gave the Chief my gun and told him that if his enimies were in those bushes before him that he could defend himself with that gun, that for my own part I was not affraid to die and if I deceived him he might make what uce of the gun he thought proper or in other words that he might shoot me. ... after reading the notes which were the same I had left I told the Chief that when I had left my brother Chief with the party below where the river entered the mountain that we both agreed not to bring the canoes higher up than the next forks of the river above us wherever this might happen, ...that this note was left here today and that he informed me that he was just below the mountains and was coming on slowly up, and added that I should wait here for him, ...
my mind was in reallity quite as gloomy all this evening as the most affrighted indian but I affected cheerfullness to keep the Indians so who were about me. ... I slept but little as might be well expected, my mind dwelling on the state of the expedition which I haver ever held in equal estimation with my own existence, and the fait of which appeared at this moment to depend in a great measure upon the caprice of a few savages who are ever as fickle as the wind. ... some of the party had also told the Indians that we had a man with us who was black and had short curling hair, this had excited their curiossity very much. and they seemed quite as anxious to see this monster as they wer[e] the merchandize which we had to barter for their horses.
August 16, 1805
Captain Lewis slackened his pace, and followed at a sufficient distance to observe them. When they reached the place where Drewyer had thrown out the intestines, they all dismounted in confusion and ran tumbling over each other like famished dogs: each tore away whatever part he could and instantly began to eat it; some had the liver, some the kidneys, in short no part on which we are accustomed to look with disgust escaped them: one of them who had seized about nine feet of the entrails was chewing at one end, while with his hand he was diligently clearing his way by discharging the contents at the other. It was indeed impossible to see these wretches ravenously feeding on the filth of animals, and the blood streaming from their mouths, without deploring how nearly the condition of savages approaches that of the brute creation: yet though suffering with hunger they did not attempt, as they might have done, to take by force the whole deer, but contented themselves with what had been thrown away by the hunter. Captain Lewis now had the deer skinned, and after reserving a quarter of it gave the rest of the animal to the chief to be divided among the Indians, who immediately devoured nearly the whole of it without cooking. They now went forward towards the creek where there was some brushwood to make a fire, and found Drewyer who had killed a second deer: the same struggle for the entrails was renewed here, and on giving nearly the whole deer to the Indians, they devoured it even to the soft part of the hoofs. A fire being made captain Lewis had his breakfast, during which Drewyer brought in a third deer: this too, after reserving one quarter, was given to the Indians, who now seemed completely satisfied and in good humour.
August 17, 1805
... Capt. Clark arrived with the Interpreter Charbono, and the Indian woman, who proved to be a sister of the Chief Cameahwait. the meeting of those people was really affecting, particularly between Sah-cah-gar-we-ah and an Indian woman, who had been taken prisoner at the same time with her and who, had afterwards escaped from the Minnetares and rejoined her nation.
...through the medium of Labuish, Charbono and Sah-cah-gar-weah, we communicated to them fully the objects which had brought us into this distant part of the country, in which we took care to make them a conspicuous object of our own good wishes and the care of our government. we made them sensible of their dependance on the will of our government for every species of merchandize as well for their defence & comfort; and apprized them of the strength of our government and it's friendly dispositions towards them.
every article about us appeared to excite astonishment in ther minds; the appearance of the men, their arms, the canoes, our manner of working them, the b[l]ack man york and the sagacity of my dog were equally objects of admiration. I also shot my air-gun which was so perfectly incomprehensive that they immediately denominated it the great medicine. ... the cerimony of our council and smoking the pipe was in conformity of the custom of this nation perfo[r]med bearfoot. on those occasions points of etiquet are quite as much attended to by the Indians as among scivilized nations. To keep indians in a good humour you must not fatiegue them with too much business at one time.
... it was mutually agreed that he (Capt. Clark) should set out tomorrow morning with eleven men furnished with axes and other necessary tools for making canoes, their arms accoutrements and as much of their baggage as they could carry. ... In the mean time I was to bring on the party and baggage to the Shoshone Camp, calculating that by the time I should reach that place that he would have sufficiently informed himself with rispect to the state of the river &c. as to determine us whether to prosicute our journey from thence by land or water. ... the sperits of the men were now much elated at the prospect of geting horses.
August 17, 1805
The Interpreter & Squar who were before me at Some distance danced for the joyful sight, and She made signs to me that they were her nation, (By sucking her fingers.)
... those Indians Sung all the way to their Camp where the others had provd a cind [kind] of Shade of Willows Struck up in a Circle ... the Main Chief imediately tied to my hair Six Small pieces of Shells resembling perl which is highly Valued by those people is is pr[o]cured from the nations resideing near the Sea Coast.
The Great Chief of this nation proved to be the brother of the woman with us and is a man of Influence Sence & easey & reserved manners, appears to possess a great deel of Cincerity. ... every thing appeared to astonish those people. the appearance of the men, their arms, the Canoes, the Clothing my black Servent & the Segassity of Capt Lewis's Dog. ... we made a number of enquires of those people about the Columbia River the Countrey game & c. The account they gave us was verry unfavourable, that the River abounded in emence falls, one perticularly much higher than the falls of the Missouri & at the place the mountains Closed so Close that it was impracticable to pass, & that the ridge Continued on each Side of perpendicular Clifts inpenetratable, and that no Deer Elk or any game was to be found in that Countrey, aded to that they informed us that there was no timber on the river Sufficiently large to make Small Canoes, This information (if true is alarming) I deturmined to go in advance and examine the ?ountrey, See if those dificueltes presented themselves in the gloomey picture in which they painted them, and if the river was practi[c]able and I could find timber to build Canoes,
... the Indians being so harrassed & compelled to move about in those rugid mountains that they are half Starved liveing at this time on berries & roots which they geather in the plains. Those people are not begerley but generous, only one has asked me for anything and he for powder.
... Ka-me-ah-wah or come & Smoke.
August 18, 1805
I soon obtained three very good horses. for which I gave an uniform coat, a pair of legings, a few handkerchiefs, three knives and some other small articles the whole of which did not cost more than about 20$ in the U' States. the Indians seemed quite as well pleased with their bargin as I was. the men also purchased one for an old checked shirt a pair of old legings and a knife.
This day I completed my thirty first year, and conceived that I had in all human probability now existed about half the period which I am to remain in this Sublunary world. I reflected that I had as yet done but little, very little, indeed, to further the hapiness of the human race, or to advance the information of the succeeding generation. I viewed with regret the many hours I have spent in indolence, and now soarly feel the want of that information which those hours would have given me had they been judiciously expended. but since they are past and cannot be recalled, I dash from me the gloomy thought, and resolved in future, to redouble my exertions and at least indeavour to promote those two primary objects of human existence, by giving them the aid of that portion of talents which nature and fortune have bestoed on me; or in future, to live for mankind, as I have heretofore lived for myself.
August 24, 1805
Cameahwait literally translated is one who never walks. he told me that his nation had also given him another name by which he was signalized as a warrior which was Too-et-te-can-e or black gun. these people have many names in the course of their lives, particularly if they become distinguished characters. for it seems that every important event by which they happen to distinguish themselves intitles them to claim another name which is generally scelected by themselves and confirmed by the nation. those distinguishing acts are the killing and scalping an enemy, the killing a white bear, leading a party to war who happen to be successfull either in destroying their enemies or robing them of their horses, or individually stealing the horses of an enemy. these are considered acts of equal heroism among them, and that of killing an enemy without scalping him is considered of no importance; in fact the whole honour seems to be founded in the act of scalping, for if a man happens to slay a dozen of his enemies in action and others get the scalps or first lay their hand on the dead person the honor is lost to him who killed them and devolves on those who scalp or first touch them. Among the Shoshones, as well as all the Indians of America, bravery is esteemed the primary virtue; nor can any one become eminent among them who has not at some period of his life given proofs of his possessing this virtue. with them there can be no preferment without some warlike achievement, and so completely interwoven is this principle with the earliest Elements of thought that it will in my opinion prove a serious obstruction to the restoration of a general peace among the nations of the Missouri.
September 2, 1805
proceded on thro' thickets in which we were obliged to Cut a road, over rockey hill Sides where our horses were in [per]peteal danger of Slipping to their certain distruction & up & Down Steep hills, where Several horses fell, Some turned over, and others Sliped down Steep hill Sides, one horse Crippeled & 2 gave out.
Some rain at night.
September 4, 1805
we [were] detained untill 8 oClock to thaw the covering for the baggage ... Groun[d] covered with Snow,
... we met a part[y] of the Tushepau nation, of 33 Lodges about 80 men 400 Total and at least 500 horses, ... they [are] Stout & light complected more So than Common for Indians, ... I was the first white man who ever wer on the waters of this river.
September 5, 1805
... we assembled the Chiefs & warriers and Spoke to them (with much dificuel[t]y as what we Said had to pass through Several languages before it got into theirs, which is a gugling kind of language Spoken much thro the throught [throat]) ... I purchased 11 horses & exchanged 7 for which we gave a fiew articles of merchendize, those people possess ellegant horses.
September 15, 1805
Several horses Sliped and roled down Steep hills which hurt them verry much the one which Carried my desk & Small trunk Turned over & roled down a mountain for 40 yards & lodged against a tree, broke the desk the horse escaped and appeared but little hurt Some others verry much hurt, ... when we arrived at the top As we Conceved, we could find no water and Concluded to Camp and make use of the Snow we found on the top to cook the remns. of our Colt & make our Supe, evening verry cold and cloudy. ... nothing killed to day except 2 Phests.
From this mountain I could observe high ruged mountains in every direction as far as I could see.
September 17, 1805
Killed a fiew Pheasents which was not sufficient for our Supper which compelled us to kill Something, a Coalt being the most useless part of our Stock he fell a Prey to our appetites.
September 18, 1805
The want of provisions together with the dificul[t]y of passing those emence mountains dampened the sperits of the party which induced us to resort to Some plan of reviving ther sperits.
... Encamped on a bold running Creek passing to the left which I call Hungery Creek as at that place we had nothing to eate.
September 21, 1805
we killed a few Pheasants, and I killed a prarie woolf which together with the ballance of our horse beef and some crawfish which we obtained in the creek enabled us to make one more hearty meal, not knowing where the next was to be found. ... I find myself growing weak for the want of food and most of the men complain of a similar deficiency, and have fallen off very much.
September 27, 1805
All the men able to work comen[c]ed building 5 Canoes, Several taken Sick at work, our hunters returned Sick without meet.
September 28, 1805
Our men nearly all Complaining of their bowels, a heaviness at the Stomach & Lax, Some of those taken first getting better, ... nothing killed men complaing of their diat of fish & roots. (3/4 of the party sick)
October 01, 1805
nothin to eate except a little dried fish which they men complain of as working of them as (as much as) a dost of Salts.
October 5, 1805
Capt Lewis & my self eate a supper of roots boiled, which filled us so full of wind, that we were scercely able to Breathe all night
had all our horses 38 in number Collected and branded Cut off their fore top and delivered them to the 2 brothers and one son of one of the Chiefs who intends to accompany us down the river ... they promised to be attentive to our horses untill we Should return
Capt Lewis & myself eate a Supper of roots boiled, which Swelled us in Such a manner that we were Scercely able to breath for Several hours.
October 8, 1805
... one canoe in which Sergt. Gass was Stearing and was nearle turning over, she Sprung a leak or Split open on one side and Bottom filled with water & Sunk on the rapid, the men, Several of which Could not Swim hung on to the Canoe, ... one man Tompson a little hurt, every thing wet particularly the greater part of our Small Stock of Merchandize, had every thing opened, and two Sentinels put over them to keep off the Indians, who are enclined to theave haveing Stole Several Small articles those people appeared disposed to give us every assistance in their power during our distress.
October 10, 1805
we purchased fish & dogs of those people, dined and proceeded on.
(We have some frenchmen, who prefer dog-flesh to fish; and they here got two or three dogs from the Indians. -- Gass)
a miss understanding took place between Shabono one of our interpreters and Jo & R Fields which appears to have originated in just [jest]. our diet extremely bad haveing nothing but roots and dried fish to eate, all the Party have greatly the advantage of me, in as much as they all relish the flesh of the dogs,
The men expose those parts which are generally kept from few [view] by other nations but the women are more perticular than any other nation which I have passed [in s[e]creting the parts]
October 11, 1805
we purchased all the fish we could and Seven dogs of those people for Stores ...
(at another Indian lodge) ... five dogs ...
(further on) we purchased three dogs ...
October 17, 1805
Those people appears to live in a State of comparitive happiness: they take a great[er] share [in the] labor of the woman, than is common among Savage tribes, and as I am informed [are] content with one wife (as also those on the Ki moo e nim river) Those people respect the aged with Veneration. Those people ... are subject to sore eyes, and many are blind of one and Some of both eyes. this misfortune must be owing to the reflections of the sun &c. on the waters in which they are continually fishing during the Spring Summer & fall, & the snows dureing the, winter Seasons, in this open countrey where the eye has no rest. I have observed amongst those, as well in all other tribes which I have passed on these waters who live on fish maney of different sectes who have lost their teeth about middle age, Some have their teeth worn to the gums, perticelar[ly] those of the upper jaw, and the tribes generally have had bad teeth the cause of it I cannot account [for], sand attachd. to the roots & the method they have of useing the dried Salmon, which is mearly worming it and eating the rine & scales with the flesh of the fish, no doubt contributes to it.
October 19, 1805
P. Crusat played on the violin which pleased and astonished those [w]reches who are badly clad, 3/4 with robes not half large enough to cover them, they are homeley high cheeks, and but fiew orniments. I suped on the crane which I killed to day.
October 23, 1805
our old Chiefs over herd the Indians from below say they would try to kill us & informed us of it, we have all the arms examined and put in order, ... we purchased 8 dogs, Small & fat for our party to eate, the Indians not verry fond of selling their good fish, compells us to make use of dogs for food. Exchanged our small canoe for a large & verry new one built for riding the waves
October 26, 1805
The Flees which the party got on them at the upper & great falls, are very troublesom and dificuelt to get rid of, perticularly as the me[n] have not a Change of Clothes to put on, they strip off their Clothes and kill the flees, dureing which time they remain nakid.
October 29, 1805
The Chief then directed his wife to hand him his medison bag which he opened and Showed us 14 fingers [different fingers not little or middle fingers] which he said was the fingers of his enemies which he had taken in war, ... this is the first Instance I ever knew of the Indians takeing any other trofea of their exploits off the dead bodies of their Enimies except the Scalp.
October 31, 1805
the Great Shute ... (The entire fall for three miles is sixty feet.)
... had everry appearance of being effected by the tide ... a remarkable high detached rock Stands in a bottom on the Stard. Side near the lower point of this Island on the Stard. Side about 800 feet high and 400 paces around, we call the Beaten [Beacon] rock
... there is great numbers of both large and Small rocks, water passing with great velocity forming [foaming] & boiling in a most horriable manner, with a fall of about 20 feet,
November 1, 1805
The[y] press the female childrens heads between 2 bords when young untill they form the skul as they wish it which is generally verry flat. This amongst those people is considered as a great mark of buty, and is practised in all the tribes we have passed on this river more or less. Men take more of the drugery off the women than is common with Indians.
November 5, 1805
Rained all the after part of last night, rain continues this morning, I [s]lept but verry little last night for the noise Kept [up] dureing the whole of the night by the Swans, Geese, white & Grey Brant Ducks &c. ... they were emensely noumerous, and their noise horid.
This is certainly a fertill and a handsom valley, at this time crouded with Indians. ... we are all wet cold and disagreeable ... This is the first night which we have been entirely clear of Indians since our arrival on the waters of the Columbia River.
November 7, 1805
Sold us ... three dogs ...
... Speake a language different from the nativs above with whome they trade for the Wapato roots of which they make great use of as food. their houses differently built, ... Strans of bark ... hang ... from the waist, the whole being of Suff[i]cent thickness when the female Stands erect to conceal those parts useally covered from familiar view, but when she stoops or places herself in any other attitude this batter of Venus is not altogether impervious to the penetrating eye of the amorite.
... here we purchased a Dog ... Two Indians accompanied us from the last village, they we detected in Stealing a knife and returned, the river being too wide to See either the form Shape or Size of the Islands on the Lard Side.
Great joy in camp we are in viuew of the Ocian, this great Pacific Octean which we been so long anxious to See. and the roreing or noise made by the waves brakeing on the rockey Shores (as I suppose) may be heard disti[n]ctly
November 11, 1805
... the wind verry high from the S. W. with most tremendious waves brakeing with great violence against the Shores, rain falling in torrents, we are all wet as usual -- and our Situation is truly a disagreeable one; the great quantities of rain which has loosened the Stones on the hill Sides; and the Small stones fall down upon us, our canoes at one place at the mercy of the waves, our baggage in another; and our selves and party Scattered on floating logs and Such dry Spots as can be found on the hill sides, and crivicies of the rocks.
...made Signs that he got those clothes from the white people who lived below the point &c. those people left us and crossed the river (which is about 5 miles wide at this place) through the highest waves I ever Saw a Small vestles ride. Those Indians are certainly the best Canoe navigaters I ever Saw.
November 21, 1805
Several Indians and squars came this evening I beleave for the purpose of gratifying the passions of our men, Those people appear to view sensuality as a necessary evill, and do not appear to abhore this as crime in the unmarried females. The young women sport openly with our men, and appear to receve the approbation of theer friends & relations for so doing maney of the women are handsom. ... I saw the name of J. Bowmon marked or picked on a young squars left arm. The women of this nation Pick their legs in different figures as an orniment the[y] ware their hair loose, some trinkets in their ears, ... many men have salors clothes, maney have good fusees & Ball & Power.
The women have more privalages than is common among Indians. Pocks & veneral is common amongst them. I saw one man & one woman who appeared to be all in scabs & several men with the venereal
Those people gave me Sturgion Salmon & wapto roots ... for which we were obliged to give emence prices.
November 22, 1805
O! how horriable is the day.
this Storm did not sease at day but blew with nearly equal violence throughout the whole day accompan[i]ed with rain. O! how horriable is the day waves brakeing with great violence against the Shore throwing the Water into our Camp &c. all wet and confind to our Shelters,
... those roots are equal to the Irish potato, and is a tolerable substitute for bread.
November 23, 1805
Capt. Lewis Branded a tree with his name Date &c. I marked my name the Day & year on a alder tree, the party all Cut the first letters of their names on different trees in the bottom.
... Seven indians of the Clot sop Nation came over in a Canoe, they brought with them 2 Sea otter Skins for which they asked blue beads &c. and Such high pricies that we were unable to purchase them without reducing our Small Stock of Merchendize, on which we depended for Subcistance on our return up this river. mearly to try the Indian who had one of those Skins, I offered him my Watch, handkerchief a bunch of red beads and a dollar of the American coin, all of which he refused and demanded "ti-a-co-mo-shack" which is Chief beads and the most common blue beads, but fiew of which we have at this time
they Speak the Same language of the Chinnooks and resemble them in every respect except that of Stealing, which we have not cought them at as yet.
November 24, 1805
[A vote of the men, as to location of winter quarters.]
Janey [Sacajawea? -- Ed.] in favour of a place where there is plenty of Potas.
Cp. L & F Proceed on to morrow & examine The other side of good hunting to winter there, as salt is an objt. if not to proceed on to Sandy it is probable that a vestle will come in this winter, & that by proceeding on at any distance would not inhance our journey in passing the Rockey Mountains, &c.
W C. In favour of proceding on without delay to the opposit shore & there examine, and find out both the disposition of the Indians, & ... the climent would be more favourable on the Sea Coast for our naked men than higher up the countrey where the climate must be more severe. The advantage of the arival of a vestle from whome we can precure goods will be more than an over ballance, for the bad liveing we shall have in liveing on Pore deer & Elk we may get in this neighbourhood. If we cannot subsist on the above terms to proceed on, and make station camps, to neighbourhood of the Frendly village near the long narrows & delay untill we can proceed up the river.
we have every reason to believe that the Nativs have not provisions Suffi[ci]ent for our consumption, and if they had, their prices are So high that it would take ten times as much to purchase their roots & Dried fish as we have in our possession, ... They generaly agree that the Most Elk is on the Opposit Shore, and that the greatest Numbers of Deer is up the river at some distance above. The Elk being an animal much larger than Deer, easier to Kill, & better meat (in the Winter when pore) and Skins better for the Clothes of our party: added to [this] a convenient Situation to the Sea coast where We Could make Salt, and a probibility of Vessels comeing into the Mouth of Columbia ("which the Indians inform us would return to trade with them in 3 months") from whome we might precure a fresh Supply of Indian trinkets to purchase provisions on our return home: together with the Solicitations of every individual, except one of our party induced us [to] Conclude to Cross the river and examine the opposit Side, and if a Sufficent quantity of Elk could probebly be precured to fix on a Situation as convenient to the Elk & Sea Coast as we could find. added to the above advantagies in being near the Sea Coast one most Strikeing one occurs to me i.e., the Climate which must be from every appearand much milder than that above the 1st range of Mountains, The Indians are Slightly Clothed and give an account of but little Snow, and the weather which we have experienced since we arrived in the neighbourhood of the Sea coast has been verry warm, and maney of the fiew days past disagreeably so. if this Should be the case it will most Certainly be the best Situation of our Naked party dressed as they are altogether in leather.
November 28, 1805
we could find no deer, several hunters attempted to penetrate the thick woods to the main South Side without suckcess the swan & gees wild and cannot be approached, and wind to high to go either back or forward, and we have nothing to eate but a little Pounded fish which we purchasd. at the Great falls, This is our present situation! truly disagreeable. aded to this the robes of our selves and men are all rotten from being continually wet, and we cannot precure others, or blankets in these places.
Those squals were suckceeded by rain O! how Tremendious is the day. This dredfull wind and rain continued with intervales of fair weather, the greater part of the evening and night
December 1, 1805
my hunters returned without any thing saw 2 gang of Elk a disagreeable situation, men all employed in mending their leather clothes, socks &c. and Dressing some Leather. The sea which is imedeately in front roars like a repeeted roling thunder and have rored in that way ever since our arrival in its borders which is now 24 days since we arrived in sight of the Great Western Ocian, I cant say Pasific as since I have seen it, it has been the reverse Elegant canoes.
December 3, 1805
the men sent after an Elk yesterday returnd. with an Elk which revived the sperits of my men verry much, I am unwell and cannot eate, the flesh O! how disagreeable my situation, a plenty of meat and incap[ab]le of eateing any. ... I marked my name & the day of the month and year on a large Pine tree on this peninsella & by land "Capt William Clark December 3rd 1805. By Land. U.States in 1804-1805" The Squar Broke the two shank bones of the Elk after the marrow was taken out, boiled them & extracted a Pint of Greese or tallow from them.
December 4, 1805
no account of Capt. Lewis. I fear Some accident has taken place in his craft or party.
December 11, 1805
we are all employed putting up huts or Cabins for our winters quarters, Sergeant Pryor unwell from a dislocation of his sholder, Gibson with the disentary, Jo. Fields with biles on his legs, & Werner with a Strained Knee. The rain Continued moderately all day.
December 13, 1805
Drewyer & Shannon returned from hunting. haveing killed 18 Elk & left them boochered in the woods ... we Continue to put up the Streight butifull balsom pine on our houses. and we are much pleased to find that the timber Splits most butifully and to the width of 2 feet or more.
December 14, 1805
all our last Supply of Elk has Spoiled in the repeeted rains which has been fallen ever Since our arrival at this place, and for a long time before, Scerce one man in camp can bost of being one day dry Since we landed at this point, the Sick getting better, my man York Sick with Cholick & gripeing.
December 16, 1805
The winds violent Trees falling in every derection, whorl winds, with gusts of rain Hail & Thunder, this kind of weather lasted all day, Certainly one of the worst days that ever was! ... Several men complaining of hurting themselves carry[ing] meat, &c.
December 25, 1805
at day light this morning we we[re] awoke by the discharge of the fire arm[s] of all our party & a Selute, Shouts and a Song which the whole party joined in under our windows, after which they retired to their rooms were chearfull all the morning. after brackfast we divided our Tobacco which amounted to 12 carrots one half of which we gave to the men of the party who used tobacco, and to those who doe not use it we make a present of a handkerchief. ...all the party Snugly fixed in their huts. I recved a pres[e]nt of Capt. L. of a fleece hosrie [hosiery] Shirt Draws and Socks, a pr. Mockersons of Whitehouse a Small Indian basket of Gutherich, two Dozen white weazils tails of the Indian woman, & some black root of the Indians before their departure. The day proved Showerey wet and disagreeable.
we would have Spent this day the nativity of Christ in feasting, had we any thing either to raise our Sperits or even gratify our appetites, our Diner concisted of pore Elk, so much Spoiled that we eate it thro' mear necessity, Some Spoiled pounded fish and a fiew roots.
December 29, 1805
The Chin-nook womin are lude and carry on sport publickly the Clotsop and others appear deffident, and reserved.
I gave the Cheif a razor, and himself and party left us after begging us for maney articles none of which they recevied as we Could not Spare the articles they were most in want of. Peter Crusat Sick with a violent Cold,
The flees are So noumerous and hard to get rid of; that the Indians have different houses which they resort to occasionally, not withstanding all their precautions, they never Step into our house without leaveing Sworms of those tormenting insects; and they torment us in such a manner as to deprive us of half the nights Sleep frequently.
December 30, 1805
The fort was completed this evening and at sun set we let The Indians know that, our custom will be to shut the gates at sun set, at which time they must all go out of the fort.
our fortification is completed this evening and at Sun set we let the nativs know that our Custom will be in future, to Shut the gates at Sun Set at which time all Indians must go out of the fort and not return into it untill next morning after Sunrise at which times the gates will be opened, ... this day proved to be the fairest and best which we have had since our arrival at thjis place, only three Showers dureing this whole day,
January 1, 1806
This morning I was awoke at an early hour by the discharge of a volley of small arms, which were fired by our party in front of our quarters to usher in the new year; this was the only mark of rispect which we had it in our power to pay this celebrated day. our repast of this day tho' better than that of Christmass, consisted principally in the anticipation of the 1st day of January 1807, when in the bosom of our friends we hope to participate in the mirth and hilarity of the day, and when with the zest given by the recollection of the present, we shall completely, both mentally and corporally, enjoy the repast which the hand of civilization has prepared for us. at present we were content with eating our boiled Elk and wappe-toe, and solacing our thirst with our only beverage pure water.
[Orderly Book; Lewis]
The Commanding Officers require and charge the Garrison to treat the natives in a friendly manner; nor will they be permitted at any time, to abuse, assault or strike them; unless such abuse assault or stroke be first given by the natives. nevertheless it shall be right for any individual, in a peaceable manner, to refuse admittance to, or put out of his room, any native who may become troublesome to him;
January 1, 1806
... we wer Saluted from the party without, wishing us a "hapy new Year" a Shout and discharge of their arms. ... The work of our houses and fort being now complete, we Ishued an order in which we pointed out the rules & regulations for the government of the Party in respect to the Indians ...
our fortification being now complete we issue an order for the more exact and uniform dicipline and government of the garrison.
January 2, 1806
we are infested with swarms of flees already in our new habitations; the presumption is therefore strong that we shall not devest ourselves of this intolerably troublesome vermin during our residence here.
January 2, 1806
The flees are verry troublesom, our huts have alreadey Sworms of those disagreeable insects in them, and I fear we Shall not get rid of them dureing our delay at this place.
January 3, 1806
our party from necessaty having been obliged to subsist some lenth of time on dogs have now become extreemly fond of their flesh; it is worthy of remark that while we lived principally on flesh of this anamal we were much more healthy strong and more fleshey than we had been since we left the Buffaloe country. for my own part I have become so perfectly reconciled to the dog that I think it an agreeable food and would prefer it vastly to lean Venison or Elk.
January 3, 1806
as for my own part I have not become reconsiled to the taste of this animal as yet.
January 4, 1806
they appear to be a mild inoffensive people but will pilfer if they have an opportunity to do so where they conceive themselves not liable to detection. they are great higlers in trade and if they conceive you anxious to purchase will be a whole day bargaining for a handfull of roots; this I should have thought proceeded from their want of knowledge of the comparitive value of articles of merchandize and the fear of being cheated, did I not find that they invariably refuse the price first offered them and afterwards very frequently accept a smaller quantity of the same article; in order to satisfy myself on this subject I once offered a Chinnook my watch two knives and a considerable quantity of beads for a small inferior sea Otter's skin which I did not much want, he immediately conceived it of great value, and refused to barter except I would double the quantity of beads; the next day with a great deal of importunity on his part I received the skin in exchange for a few strans of the same beads he had refused the day before. I therefore believe this trait in their character proceeds from an avaricious all grasping disposition. in this rispect they differ from all Indians I ever became acquainted with, for their dispositions invariably lead them to give whatever they are possessed off no matter how usefull or valuable, for a bauble which pleases their fancy, without consulting it's usefullness or value. nothing interesting occurred today, or more so, than our wappetoe being all exhausted.
January 8, 1806
... proceeded to the top of the mountain next to the [former?] which is much the highest part and that part faceing the sea is open, from this point I beheld the grandest and most pleasing prospects which my eyes ever surveyed, in my frount a boundless Ocean; ... a most romantic appearance.
(Whale) ... found only the Skelleton of this Monster on the Sand ... this Skeleton (of the Whale Capt. Clark) measured 105 feet.
(The natives ) ... they possessed large quantities of this blubber and oil were so prenurious that they disposed of it with great reluctiance and in small quantities only; insomuch that my utmost exertion aided by the party with the Imall Stock of merchindize I had taken with me were not able to precure more blubber than about 300 lb. and a fiew gallons of oil; Small as this stock is I prise it highly; and thank providence for directing the whale to us; and think him much more kind to us than he was to jonah, having Sent this Monster to be Swallowed by us in Sted of Swallowing of us as jonah's did.
January 9, 1806
The persons who usually visit the entrance of this river for the purpose of traffic or hunting I believe are either English or Americans; the Indians inform us that they speak the same language with ourselves, and give us proofs of their varacity by repeating many words of English, as musquit, powder, shot, [k]nife, file, damned rascal, sun of a bitch &c.
... the cause of the alarm which was found to be a premeditated plan of the pretended friend of McNeal to ass[ass]anate [him] for his Blanket and what fiew articles he had about him, which was found out by a Chinnook woman who allarmed the men of the village who were with me in time to prevent the horred act.
January 12, 1806
Drewyer ... I scarcely know how we should subsist were it not for the exertions of this excellent hunter.
... we have determined to adapt a different system with our present stock of seven Elk; this is to jirk it & issue to them in small quantities
January 12, 1806
(Drewyer) ... I scercely know how we Should Subsist, I beleive but badly if it was not for the exertions of this excellent hunter; maney others also exert themselves, but not being accquainted with the best method of finding and killing the elk and no other wild animals is to be found in this quarter, they are unsucksessfull in their exertions.
January 16, 1806
we have plenty of Elk beef for the present and a little salt, our houses dry and comfortable, and having made up our minds to remain until the 1st of April, every one appears content with his situation and his fare. it is true that we could even travel now on our return as far as the timbered country reaches, or to the falls of the river; but further it would be madness for us to attempt to proceede untill April, as the indians inform us that the snows lye knee deep in the plains of Columbia during the winter, and in these plains we could scarcely get as much fuel of any kind as would cook our provision as we descended the river; and even were we happyly over these plains and again in the woody country at the foot of the Rocky Mountains we could not possibly pass that immence barrier of mountains on which the snows ly in winter to the debth in many places of 20 feet; in short the Indians inform us that they are impracticable untill about the 1st of June, at which time even there is an abundance of snow but a scanty subsistence may be obtained for the horses.
January 29, 1806
Nothing worthy of notice occurred today.
on this food I do not feel strong, but enjoy the most perfect health; a keen appetite supplys in a great degree wht want of more luxurious sauses or dishes, and still renders my ordinary meals not uninteresting to me, for I find myself sometimes enquiring of the cook whether dinner or breakfast is ready.
January 29, 1806
indeed my appetite is but Seldom gratified, not even after I have eaten what I conceve a sufficency.
February 7, 1806
This evening we had what I call an excellent supper it consisted of a marrowbone a piece and a brisket of boiled Elk that had the appearance of a little fat on it. this for Fort Clatsop is living in high stile.
The small pox has distroyed a great number of the natives in this quarter. it prevailed about 4 years since among the Clatsops and destroy[ed] several hundred of them, four of their chiefs fell victyms to it's ravages.
February 22, 1806
our sick consisting of Gibson, Bratton, Sergt. Ordway, Willard and McNeal are all on the recovery. we have not had as ma[n]y sick at any one time since we left Wood River. the general complaint seams to be bad colds and fevers, something I beleive of the influenza.
March 3, 1806
Two of our perogues have been lately injured very much in consequence of the tide leaving them partially on shore. they split by this means with their own weight. we had them drawn out on shore. ... no movement of the party today worthy of notice. every thing moves on in the old way and we are counting the days which seperate us from the 1st of April and which bind us to fort Clatsop.
March 5, 1806
They had neither killed nor seen any Elk. they informed us that the Elk had all gone off to the mountains a considerable distance from us. this is unwelcome information and reather allarming we have only 2 days provision on hand, and that nearly spoiled. ... if we find that the Elk have left us, we have determined to ascend the river slowly and indeavour to procure subsistence on the way, consuming the Month of March in the woody country.
March 16, 1806
the Indians remained with us all day, but would not dispose of their canoes at a price which it was in our power to give consistently with the state of our Stock of Merchandize. two handkerchiefs would now contain all the small articles of merchandize which we possess; the ballance 9f the stock consists of 6 blue robes one scarlet do. one uniform artillerist's coat and hat, five robes made of our large flag, and a few old cloaths trimed with ribbon. on this stock we have wholy to depend for the purchase of horses and such portion of our subsistence from the Indians as it will be in our powers to obtain. a scant dependence indeed, for a tour of the distance of that before us.
March 17, 1806
for this canoe he gave my uniform laced coat and nearly half a carrot of tobacco. it seems that nothing excep[t] this coat would induce them to dispose of a canoe which in their mode of traffic is an article of the greatest val[u]e except a wife, with whom it is equal, and is generally given in exchange to the father for his daughter. I think the U'States are indebted to me another Uniform coat for that of which I have disposed on this occasion was but little woarn. we yet want another canoe, and as the Clatsops will not sell us one at a price which we can afford to give we will take one from them in lue of the six Elk which they stole from us in the winter.
March 17, 1806
We yet want another canoe as the Clatsops will not sell us one, a proposition has been made by one of our interpts and sever[al] of the party to take one in lieu of 6 Elk which they stole from us this winter &c.
March 19, 1806
the most remarkable trait in their physiognomy is the peculiar flatness and width of forehead which they artificially obtain by compressing the head between two boards while in a state of infancy and from which it never afterwards perfectly recovers. ... I have observed the heads of many infants, after this singular bandage had been dismissed, or about the age of 10 or eleven months, that were not more than two inches thick about the upper edge of the forehead and reather thiner still higher. ... it is from this peculiar form of the head that the nations East of the Rocky mountains, call all the nations on this side, except the Aliohtans or snake Indians, by the generic name of Flatheads. ... the large or apparently swolen legs particularly observable in the women are obtained in a great measure by tying a cord tight around the ankle.
... they call us pah-shish-e-ooks, or cloth men.
... girdle ... the whole being of sufficient thickness when the female stands erect to conceal those parts usually covered from formiliar view, but when she stoops or places herself in many other attitudes, this battery of Venus is not altogether impervious to the inquisitive and penetrating eye of the amorite.
I think the most disgusting sight I have ever behld is these dirty naked wenches. The men of these nations partake of much more of the domestic drudgery than I had at first supposed.
March 23, 1806
at 1 P.M. we bid a final adieu to Fort Clatsop. we had not proceeded more than a mile before we met Delashelwilt and a party of 20 Chinnooks men and women. this Cheif lea[r]ning that we were in want of a canoe some days past, had brought us one for sale, but being already supplyed, we did not purchase it.
March 23, 1806
at this place we had wintered and remained from the 7th of Decr. 1805 to this day and have lived as well as we had any right to expect, and we can say that we were never one day without 3 meals of some kind a day either pore Elk meat or roots, notwithstanding the repeated fall of rain which has fallen almost constantly since we passed the long narrows ... indeed w[e] have had only [blank space in MS.] days fair weather since that time.
March 24, 1806
... we arrived at the Cathlahmah village where we halted and purchased some wappetoe, a dog for the sick, and a hat for one of the men. ... these people are very fond of sculpture in wood of which they exhibit a variety of specemines about their houses. ... I saw some of these which represented human figures setting and supporting the burthen on their sholders.
... this Cathlahmah claimed the small canoe which we had taken from the Clatsops.
March 29, 1806
we purchased a considerable quantity of wappetoes, 12 dogs, and 2 Sea otter skins of these people. ... notwithstanding their hospitality if it deserves that appellation, they are great begers, for we had scarcely finished our repast on the wappetoe and Anchovies which they voluntarily set before us before they began to beg.
March 30, 1806
they have also a very singular custom among them of baithing themselves allover with urine every morning. ... this valley would be co[m]petent to the mantainence of 40 or 50 thousand souls if properly cultivated and is indeed the only desirable situation for a settlement which I have seen on the West side of the Rocky mountains.
April 9, 1806
John Colter one of our party observed the tomehawk in one of the lodges which had been stolen from us on the 4th of November last as we decended this river; the nativs attempted to wrest the tomahawk from him but he retained it. they indeavoured afterwards to exculpate themselves from the odium of having stolen it, they alledged that they had bought it from the natives below; but their neighbours had several days previously, informed us that these people had stolen the Tommehawk and then had it at their village.
these people were very unfriendly, and seemed illy disposed had our numbers not detered them [from] any acts of violence. with some difficulty we obtained five dogs ... passed several beautifull cascades
several small streams fall from a much greater hight, and in their decent become a perfect mist which collecting on the rocks below again become visible and decend a second time in the same manner before they reach the base of the rocks.
we purchased two dogs ....
April 9, 1806
a few men were absolutely necessary at any rate to guard our baggage from the War-clel-lars who crouded about our camp in considerable numbers. these are the greates[t] theives and scoundrels we have met with.
the men complained of being so much fatiegued in the evening that we posponed taking up our 5th canoe untill tomorrow. these rapids are much worse than they were [in the] fall when we passed them,
many of the natives crouded about the bank of the river where the men were engaged in taking up the canoes; one of them had the insolence to cast stones down the bank at two of the men who happened to be a little detatched from the party at the time. ... two of these ... natives ... met with John Sheilds who had delayed some time in purchasing a dog ... they attempted to take the dog from him and pushed him out of the road. he had nothing to defend himself with except a large knife which he drew with an intention of puting one or both of them to death before they could get themselves in readiness to use their arrows, but discovering his design they declined the combat and instantly fled through the woods. three of this same tribe of villains the Wah-clel-lars, stole my dog this evening, and took him towards their village; I was shortly afterwards informed of this transaction by an indian who spoke the Clatsop language, and sent three men in pursuit of the theives with orders if they made the least resistence or difficulty in surrendering the dog to fire on them; they overtook these fellows or reather came within sight of them at the distance of about 2 miles; the indians discovering the party in pursuit of them left the dog and fled. they also stole an ax from us, ... we ordered the centinel to keep them out of camp, and informed them by signs that if they made any further attempts to steal our property or insulted our men we should put them to instant death. ... I am convinced that no other consideration but our number at this moment protects us.
The Cheif appeared mortified at the conduct of his people, and seemed friendly ... he had in his possession a very good pipe tomahawk which he informed us he had received as a present from a trader who visited him last wintr over land pointing to the N.W., whome he called Swippeton;
I observe snow-shoes in all the lodges of the natives above the Columbean vally. I hope that the friendly interposition of this chief may prevent our being compelled to use some violence with these people; our men seem well disposed to kill a few of them.
April 13, 1806
The loss of one of our perogues rendered it necessary to distribute her crew and cargo among the 2 remaining perogues and 2 canoes, ... rendered our vessels extreemly inconvenient to mannage and in short reather unsafe in the event of high winds; ... I soon obtained two small canoes from them for which I gave two robes and four elkskins. I also purchased four paddles and three dogs from them with deerskins. the dog now constitutes a considerable part of our subsistence and with most of the party has become a favorite food; certain I am that it is a healthy strong diet, and from habit it has become by no means disagreeable to me, I prefer it to lean venison or Elk, and it is very far superior to the horse in any state.
April 16, 1806
Great numbers of Indians came from both villages and delayed the greater part of the day without tradeing a single horse. ... they asked nearly half the merchindize I had with me for one horse. ... the nativs requested the party to dance which they very readily consented and Peter Cruzat played on the violin and the men danced several dances & retired to rest in the houses of the 1st and second Chief. ... all of those articles they precure from other nations who visit them for the purpose of exchangeing those articles for their pounded fish of which they prepare great quantities. This is the great mart of all this country. ten different tribes who reside on Taptate and Catteract River visit those people for the purpose of purchaseing their fish, and the Indians on the Columbia and Lewis's river quite to the Chopunnish Nation visit them for the purpose of tradeing horses buffalow robes for beeds, and such articles as they have not.
April 17, 1806
the salmon not having made their appearance proves a serious inconvenience to us. ... even at this place which is merely on the border of the plains of Columbia the climate seems to have changed the air feels dryer and more pure. the earth is dry and seems as if there had been no rain for a week or ten days.
... Capt. C. informed me that he had s[t]ill been unsuccessfull having not obtained a single horse ... I dispatched Shannon with a note to Capt. Clark in which I requested him to double the price we have heretofore offered for horses and if possible obtain as many as five, ...
delay in the villages at the narrows and falls will be expensive to us inasmuch as we will be compelled to purchase both fuel and food of the indians, and might the better enable them to execute any hostile design should they meditate any against us.
April 17, 1806
they tanterlised me the greater part of the day, saying that they had sent out for their horses and would trade as soon as they came. I made a bargin with the chief for 2 horses, about an hour after he canseled the bargin and we again bargained for 3 horses which were brought forward, only one of the 3 could be possibly used the other two had such intolerable backs as to render them entirely unfit for service. I refused to take two of them which displeased him abnd he refused to part with the 3rd. I then packed up the articles and was about setting out for the village above when a man came and sold me two horses, and another man sold me one horse, and several others informed me that they would trade with me if I would continue
untill their hourses could be drove up. ... this was a very unfavourable circumstance as my dependance for precureing a sufficiency of horses rested on the suckcess above where I had reasons to believe there were a greater abundance of those animals, and was in hopes of getting them on better terms.
April 19, 1806
I purchased 4 horses at the town & Capt Lewis purchased one. the natives finding that we were about to proceed on by water sold us those fiew horses for which we were compd. to pay them emence prices and the horses were indifferent.
April 20, 1806
I used every artifice decent & even false statements to enduce those pore devils to sell me horses. ... I purchased a dog ...
I gave them two pipes, and then lay my self down with the men to sleep, haveing our merchendize under our heads and guns &c in our arms, as we always have in similar situations.
April 21, 1806
...one of them had broken his cord of 5 strands of Ellskin and had gone off spanseled. ... being determined to remain no longer with these villains. they stole another tomahawk from us this morning I surched many of them but could not find it. I ordered all the spare poles, paddles and the ballance of our canoe put on the fire as the morning was cold and also that not a particle should be left for the benefit of the indians. I detected a fellow in stealing an iron socket of a canoe pole and gave him several severe blows and mad[e] the men kick him out of camp. I now informed the indians that I would shoot the first of them that attempted to steal an article from us. that we were not affraid to fight them, that I had it in my power at that moment to kill them all and set fire to their houses, but it was not my wish to treat them with severity provided they would let my property alone. that I would take their horses if I could find out the persons who had stolen the tommahawks, but that I had reather loose the property altogether than take the ho[r]se of an inosent person. the chiefs [who] were present hung their heads and said nothing.
Windsor returned with the lost horse, ... we took breakfast and departed a few minutes after 10 OClock. having nine horses ... the two canoes ...
the man resided here from whom I had purchased the horse which ran off from me yesterday. I had given him a large kettle and a knife in exchange for that horse which I informed him should be taken from him unles he produced me the lost horse or one of equal value in his stead, the latter he prefered and produced me a very good horse which I very cheerfully received.
... we obtained two dogs and a small quantity of fuel of these people for which we were obliged to give them a higher price than usual.
April 24, 1806
purchased three horses of the Wah-howpums, and hired three others of the Chopunnish man ... we now sold our canoes for a few strands of beads, ... the natives had tantalized us with an exchange of horses for our canoes in the first instance, but when they found that we had made our arrangements to travel by land they would give us nothing for them I determined to cut them in peices sooner than leave them on those terms, Drewyer struck one of the canoes and split of[f] a small peice with his tammahawk, they discovered us determined on this subject and offered us several strands of beads for each which were accepted. ... we purchased three dogs ...
most of the party complain of the soarness of their feet and legs this evening; it is no doubt caused by walking over the rough stones and deep sands after b[e]ing for some months passed been accustomed to a soft soil. my left ankle gives me much pain.
April 28, 1806
This morning early Yellept brought a very eligant white horse to our camp and presented him to Capt. C. signifying his wish to get a kettle but on being informed that we had already disposed of every kettle we could possible spear he said he was content with whatever he thought proper to give him. Capt. C. gave him his swoard (for which he had expressed a great desire) a hundred balls and powder and some s[m]all articles with which he appeared perfectly satisfyed. ... we directed Frazier to whom we have intrusted the duty of making these purchases to lay in as many fat dogs as he could procure; he soon obtained ten.
... we passed our horses over the river safely and hubbled them as usual. we found a Shoshone woman, prisoner among these people by means of whome and Sahcahgarweah we found the means of conversing with the Wallahwallahs. ... they brought several diseased persons to us for whom they requested some medical aid. one had his knee contracted by the rheumatism, another with a broken arm &c. to all of which we administered much to the gratification of those poor wretches. we gave them some eye-water which I beleive will render them more essential service than any other article in the medical way which we had it in our power to bestoe on them. ... the fiddle was played and the men amused themselves with dancing about an hour. we then requested the Indians to dance which they very cheerfully complyed with; ... the whole assemblage of indians about 550 men women and children sung and danced at the same time. ... they were much gratifyed with seeing some of our party join them in their dance.
May 1, 1806
we traveled 17 miles this evening, making a total of 26 Ms. ...
I see very little difference between the apparent face of the country here and that of the plains of the Missouri only that these are not enlivened by the vast herds of buffaloe Elk &c. which ornament the other. ... three young men arrived from the Wallahwollah village bringing with them a steel trap belonging to one of our party which had been neglegently left behind; this is an act of integrity rarely witnessed among indians. during our stay with them they several times found the knives of the men which had been carelessly lossed by them and returned them. I think we can justly affirm to the honor of these people that they are the most hospitable, honest,a nd sincere people that we have met with in our voyage.
May 5, 1806
...obtained 2 dogs ... at the second lodge we passed an indian man [who] gave Capt. C. a very eligant grey mare fr which he requested a phial of eyewater which was accordingly given him. while we were encamped last fall at the entrance of the Chopunnish river Capt. C. [with much seremony washed & rubd.] gave an indian man some volitile linniment to rub his k[n]ee and thye for a pain of which he complained [and was well, but had not walked for many months], the fellow soon after recovered and has never ceased to extol the virtues of our medicines and the skill of my friend Capt. C. as a phisician. this occurrence added to the benefit which many of them experienced from the eyewater we gave them about the same time has given them an exalted opinion of our medicine. my friend Capt. C. is their favorite phisician and has already received many applications. in our present situation I think it pardonable to continue this deseption for they will not give us any provision without compensation in merchandize and our stock is now reduced to a mere handfull. We take care to give them no article which can possibly injure them.
while at dinner an indian fellow verry impertinently threw a poor half starved puppy nearly into my plait by way of derision for our eating dogs and laughed very heartily at his own impertinence; I was so provoked at his insolence that I caught the puppy and th[r]ew it with great violence at him and stru[c]k him in the breast and face, siezed my tomahawk and shewed him by signs if he repeated his insolence I would tommahawk him, the fellow withdrew apparently much mortifyed and I continued my repast on dog without further molestation.
we had several applications to assist their sick which we refused unless they would let us have some dogs or horses to eat. a man [Chief] whose wife had an absess formed on the small of her back promised a horse in the morning provided we would administer to her accordingly Capt. C. opened the absess introduced a tent and dressed it with basilicon; [Capt. C soon had more than 50 applications] I prepared some dozes of the flour of sulpher and creem of tarter which were given with directions to be taken on each morning. a little girl and sundry other patients were offered for cure but we postponed our operations untill morning; they produced us several dogs but they were so poor that they were unfit for use.
this address was induced at this moment by the suggestions of an old man who observed t the natives that he thought we were bad men and had come most probably in order to kill them. this impression if really entertained I beleive we effaced;
May 10, 1806
... snow continued falling ... the snow 8 inches deep on the plain; ...we decended the hills to Commearp Creek and arrived at the Village of Tunnachemootoolt, the cheif at whos lodge we had left the flag last fall. this flag was now displayed on a staff placed at no great distance from the lodge.
the Cheif spoke to his people and they produced us about 2 bushels of the quawmas roots dryed, four cakes of the bread of cows and a dryed salmon trout. we thanked them for this store of provision but informed them that our men not being accustomed to live on roots alone we feared it would make them sick, to obviate which we proposed exchangeing a [goo] horse in reather low order for a young horse in tolerable order with a view to kill. the hospitality of the cheif revolted at the eydea of an exchange, he told us that his young men had a great abundance of young horses and if we wished to eat them we should by [be] furnished with as many as we wanted. accordingly they soon produced us two fat young horses one of which we killed, the other we informed them we would postpone killing untill we had consumed the one already killed. This is a much greater act of hospitality than we have witnessed from any nation or tribe since we have passed the Rocky mountains. in short be it spoken to their immortal honor it is the only act which deserves the appellation of hospitallity which we have witnessed in this quarter.
as these people had been liberal with us with rispect to provision I directed the men not to croud their lodge [in] surch of food in the manner hunger has compelled them to do at most lodges we have passed, and which the Twisted hair had informed me was disgreeable to the natives. but their previous want of hospitality had induced us to consult their enclinations but little and suffer our men to obtain provision from them on the best terms they could. ... the noise of their women pounding roots reminds me of a nail factory. The indians seem well pleased, and I am confident that they are not more so than our men who have their s[t]omachs once more well filled with horsebeef and mush of the bread of cows. the house of coventry is also seen here.
May 11, 1806
In the evening a man was brought in a robe by four Indians and laid down near me. they informed me that this man was a Chief of considerable note who has been in the situation I see him for 5 years. this man is incapable of moveing a single limb but lies like a corps in whatever position he is placed, ...
May 17, 1806
as the bear are reather ferocious and we are obliged to depend on them principally for our subsistence we thought it most advisable to direct at least two hunters to go together, and they accordingly paired themselves out for this purpose.
I am pleased at finding the river rise so rapidly, it now doubt is attributeable to the me[l]ting snows of the mountains; that icy barier which seperates me from my friends and Country, from all which makes life esteemable. patience, patience
May 18, 1806
early this morning the natives erected a lodge on the opposite side of the river near a fishing stand a little above us. no doubt to be in readiness for the salmon, the arrival of which they are so ardently wishing as well as ourselves.
June 10, 1806
at 11 A.M. we set out with the party each man being well mounted and a light load on a second horse, beside which we have several supenemary horses in case of accedent or the want of provision, we therefore feel ourselves perfectly equiped for the mountains. ... we encamped near the place we first met with the Chopunnish last fall ... we had scarcelty reached Collins's Creek before we were over taken by a party of Indians who informed us that they were going to the quawmash flatts to hunt; their object I beleive is the expectation of b[e]ing fed by us in which however kind as they have been we must disappoint them at this moment as it is necessary that we should use all frugallaty as well as employ every exertion to provide meat for our journey.
June 12, 1806
the days are now very warm and the Musquetors our old companions have become very troublesome. ... the quawmash is now in blume and from the colour of its bloom at a short distance it resembles lakes of fine clear water, so complete is this deseption that on first sight I could have swoarn it was water.
June 17, 1806
... we found ourselves invelloped in snow from 12 to 15 feet deep even on the south sides of the hills with the fairest exposure to the sun; here was winter with all it's rigors; the air was cold, my hands and feet were benumbed. ... if we proceeded and should get bewildered in these mountains the certainty was that we should loose all our horses and consequently our baggage inst[r]uments perhaps our papers and thus eminently wrisk the loss of the discoveries which we had already made if we should be so fortunate as to escape with life. ... under these circumstances we conceived it madnes[s] in this stage of the expedition to proceed without a guide who could certainly conduct us to the fish wears on the Kooskooske, as our horses could not possibly sustain a journey of more than five days without food. we therefore came to the resolution to return with our horses while they were yet strong and in good order and indevour to keep them so untill we could procure an indian to conduct us over the snowey mountains, and again to proceed as soon as we could procure such a guide, ... we ordered the party to make a deposit for all the baggage which we had not immediate use for, and also all the roots and bread of cows which they had except an allowance for a few days to enable them to return to some place at which we could subsist by hunting untill we procured a guide. we left our instruments papers &c. beleiving them safer here than to wrisk them on horseback over the roads and creeks which we had passed. our baggage being laid on scaffoalds ... we returned by the rout we had come to hungry creek, ... the party were a good deel dejected tho' not as much so as I had apprehended they would have been. this is the first time since we have been on this long tour that we have ever been compelled to retreat or make a retrograde march. it rained on us most of this evening.
June 17, 1806
... I with great difficulty prosued the direction of the road one mile further to the top of the mountain where I found the snow from 12 to 15 feet deep, but fiew trees with the fairest exposure to the Sun; here was Winter with all it's rigors; the air was cold my hands and feet were benumed. ... the snow bore our horses very well and the traveling was therefore infinately better than the obstruction of rocks and fallen timber which we met with in our passage over last fall when the snow lay on this part of the ridge in detached spop[t]s only. ... on the top of the Mountain the Weather was very fluctiating and uncertain snowed cloudy & fair in a few minets.
June 20, 1806
the hunters assured us that their greatest exertions would not enable them to support us here more than one or two days longer from the great scarcity of game and the difficult access of the country, ... we determined to return in the morning as far as the quawmash flatts ... (Big Disappointment) ... by returning to the quawmash flats we shall sooner be informed whether or not we can procure a guide to conduct us through the mountains; should we fail in procuring one, we have determined to wrisk a passage on the following plan immediately, because should we wait much longer or untill the snow desolves in such manner as to enable us to follow the road we cannot hope to reach the United States this winter; this is that Capt. C. or myself shall take four of our most expert woodsmen with three or four of our best horses and proceed two days in advance taking a plentifull supply of provision. for this party to follow the road by the marks which the baggage of the indians has made in many places on the sides of the trees by rubing against them, and to blaize the trees with a tomahawk as they proceeded. that after proceeding two days in advance of hungary creek two of those men would be sent back to the main party who by the time of their return to Hungary Creek would have reached that place. the men so returning would be enabled to inform the main party of the probable success of the proceeding party in finding the road and of their probable progress, in order that should it be necessary, the main party by the delay of a day or two at hungary creek, should give the advance time to mark the road through before the main party could overtake them, and thus prevent delay on the part of the rout where no food is to be obtained for our horses. should it so happen that the advance could not find the road by the marks on the trees after attempting it for two days, the whole of [them] then would return to the main party. in which case we wo[u]ld bring back our baggage and attempt a passage over these mountains through the country of the Shoshones further to the South by way of the main S. Westerly fork of Lewis's river and Madison or Gallatin's rivers, where from the information of the Chopunnish there is a passage which at this season of the year is not obstructed by snow, though the round is very distant and would require at least a month in it's performance. ... the only dificulty is find the road, and I think the plan we have devised will succeed even should we not be enabled to obtain a guide. Although the snow may be stated on an average at 10 feet deep yet arround the bodies of the trees it has desolved much more than in other parts not being generally more than one or two feet deep immediately at the roots of the trees, and of course the marks left by the rubing of the indian baggage against them is not concealed.
June 21, 1806
we all felt some mortification in being thus compelled to retrace our steps through this tedious and difficult part of our rout, obstructed with brush and innumerable logs of fallen timber which renders the traveling distressing and even dangerous to our horses. one of Thompson's horses is either choked this morning or has the distemper very badly I fear he is to be of no further servie to us. an excellent horse of Cruzatte's snagged himself so badly in the groin in jumping over a parsel of fallen timber that he will evidently be of no further service to us. ... we met two indians who were on their way over the mountain;
June 22, 1806
this morning by light all hands who could hunt were sent out; the result of this days perfo[r]mance was greater than we had even hoped for. we killed eight deer and three bear. ... we gave Whitehouse a few beads which Capt. C. had unexpectedly found in one of his waistcoat pockets to purchase the fish.
June 25, 1806
last evening the indians entertained us with seting the fir trees on fire. they have a great number of dry lims near their bodies which when set on fire creates a very suddon and immence blaze from bottom to top of those tall trees. they are a beatifull object in this situation at night. this exhibition reminded me of a display of fireworks. the natives told us that their object in seting those trees on fire was to bring fair weather for our journey.
June 27, 1806
from this place we had an extensive view of these stupendous mountains principally covered with snow like that on which we stood; we were entirely surrounded by those mountains from which to one unacquainted with them it would have seemed impossible ever to have escaped; in short without the assistance of our guides I doubt much whether we who had once passed them could find our way to Travellers rest in their present situation for the marked trees on which we had placed considerable reliance are much fewer and more difficult to find than we had apprehended. ... we encamped for the night having traveled 28 miles over these mountains without releiving the horses from their packs or their having any food. ... our meat being exhausted we issued a pint of bears oil to a mess which with their boiled roots made an agreeable dish.
June 28, 1806
the water was distant from our encampment we therefore melted snow and used the water principally. ... we find the traveling on the snow not worse than without it, as the easy passage it gives us over rocks and fallen timber fully compensate for the inconvenience of sliping, certain it is that we travel considerably faster on the snow than without it.
June 29, 1806
near the river we f[o]und a deer which the hunters had killed and left us. this was a fortunate supply as all our oil was now exhausted and we were reduced to our roots alone without salt. ... warm springs ... the prinsipal spring is about the temperature of the warmest baths used at
the hot springs in Virginia. In this bath which had been prepared by the Indians by stoping the run with stone and gravel, I baithed and remained in 19 minutes, it was with dificulty I could remain thus long and it caused a profuse sweat two other bold springs adjacent to this are much warmer, their heat being so great as to make the hand of a person smart extreemly when immerced. ... both the men and indians amused themselves with the use of a bath this evening. I observed that the indians after remaining in the hot bath as long as they could bear it ran and plunged themslves into the creek the water of which is now as cold as ice can make it; after remaining here a few minutes they returned again to the warm bath, repeating this transision several times but always ending with the warm bath.
June 30, 1806
Decended the mountain to Travellers rest leaveing these tremendious mountains behind us, in passing of which we have experienced cold and hunger of which I shall ever remember. ... our food was horses of which we eate three.
July 1, 1806
On Clark's River
the party who will accompany Capt L. is G. Drewyer, Sergt. Gass, Jo. and R. Fields, Frazier & Werner, and Thompson Goodrich & McNear[l] as far as the Falls of Missouri at which place the 3 latter will remain untill I send down the Canoes from the head of Jeffersons river. they will then join that party and after passing the portage around the falls, proceed on down to the enterance of Maria where Capt. Lewis will join them after haveing assended that river as high up as Latd. 50 North. from the head of Jeffersons river I shall proceed on to the head of the Rockejhone [i.e., Yellowstone] with a party of 9 or 10 men and desend that river. from the R Rockejhone I shall dispatch Sergt. Pryor with the horses to the Mandans and from thence to the Tradeing Establishments of the N.W.Co. on the Assinniboin River with a letter which we have written for the purpose to engage Mr. H. Haney to endeaver to get some of the principal Chiefs of the Scioux to accompany us to the Seat of our government &c. we divide the Loading and apportion the horses. Capt. L. only takes 17 horses with him, 8 only of which he intends to take up the Maria &c.
July 2, 1806
in the evening the indians run their horses, and we had several foot races betwen the natives and our party with various success. ... Goodrich and McNeal are both very unwell with the pox which they contracted last winter with the Chinnook women this forms my inducement principally for taking them to the falls of the Missouri where during an interval of rest they can use the murcury freely. ... the musquetoes have been excessively troublesome to us since our arrival at this place.
July 3, 1806
I took leave of my worthy friend and companion Capt. Clark and the party that accompanyed him. I could not avoid feeling much concern on this occasion although I hoped this seperation was only momentary. ... they (Indians) alledged that as the road was a well beaten track we could not now miss our way and as they were affraid of meeting with their enimies the Minnetares they could not think of continuing with us any longer, ... I directed the hunters to ... indeavour to kill some more meat for these people whom I was unwilling to leave without giving them a good supply of provision after their having been so obliging as to conduct us through those tremendious mountains. the musquetoes were so excessively troublesome this evening that we were obliged to kindle large fires for our horses these insects torture them in such manner untill they placed themselves in the smoke of the fires that I realy thought they would become frantic.
July 4, 1806
This being the day of the decleration of Independence of the United States and a Day commonly scelebrated by my Country I had every disposition to selebrate this day and therefore halted early and partook of a Sumptious Dinner of a fat Saddle of Venison and Mush of Cows (roots) after Dinner we proceeded on ...
July 7, 1806
Reubin Fields wounded a moos deer this morning near our camp. my dog much worried. [by the moose. --Ed.] ... after we encamped Drewyer killed two beaver and shot a third which bit his knee very badly and escaped.
July 8, 1806
much rejoiced at finding ourselves in the plains of the Missouri which abound with game.
July 11, 1806
it is now the season at which the buffaloe begin to coppelate and the bulls keep a tremendious roaring we could hear them for many miles and there are such numbers of them that there is one continual roar. our horses had not been acquainted with the buffaloe they appeared much allarmed at their appearance and bellowing. when I arrived in sight of the white-bear Islands the missouri bottoms on both sides of the river were crouded with buffaloe I sincerely beleif that there were not less than 10 thousand buffaloe within a circle of 2 miles arround that place.
I then set all hands to prepare two canoes the one we made after the mandan fassion with a single skin in the form of a bason and the other we constructed of two skins on a plan of our own. we were unable to compleat our canoes this evening.
July 15, 1806
a little before dark McNeal returned with his musquet broken off at the breach, and informed me that on his arrival at willow run [on the portage] he had approached a white bear within ten feet without discover[ing] him the bear being in the thick brush, the horse took the allarm and turning short threw him immediately under the bear; this animal raised himself on his hinder feet for battle, and gave him time to recover from his fall which he did in an instant and with his clubbed musquet he struck the bear over the head and cut him with the guard of the gun and broke off the breech, the bear stunned with the stroke fell to the ground and began to scratch his head with his feet; this gave McNeal time to climb a willow tree which was near at hand and thus fortunately made his escape. the bear waited at the foot of the tree untill late in the evening before he left him, when McNeal ventured down and caught his horse which had by this time strayed off to the distance of 2 Ms. and returned to camp. these bear are a most tremenduous animal; it seems that the hand of providence has been most wonderfully in our favor with rispect to them, or some of us would long since have fallen a sacrifice to their farosity. there seems to be a sertain fatality attatched to the neighbourhood of these falls, for there is always a chapter of accedents prepared for us during our residence at them.
July 17, 1806
Buffalow is getting much more plenty than they were above ... passed this evening an Indian fort ... the Squaw informs me that when the war parties (of Minnit. Crows &c. who fight Shoshonees) find themselves pursued they make those forts to defend themselves in from the pursuers whose superior numbers might otherwise over power them and cut them off without receiveing much injurey on horsback &c.
July 18, 1806
Shabono was thrown from his horse to day in pursute of a Buffaloe, the ho[r]se unfortunately steping into a Braroe hole fell and threw him over his head. he is a good deel brused on his hip sholder & face. ... I observed a Smoke rise to the S.S.E in the plains towards the termonation of the rocky mountains in that direction (which is covered with snow) this Smoke must be raisd. by the Crow Indians in that direction as a Signal for us, or other bands. ... Gibson in attemptint to mount his horse after Shooting a deer this evening fell and on a Snag and sent it nearly (two) inches into the Muskeler part of his ty. he informs me this snag was about 1 inch in diameeter burnt at the end. this is a very bad wound and pains him exceedingly. I dressed the wound.
July 20, 1806
had handles put in the 3 axes and after Sharpening them with a file fell[ed] the two trees which I intended for the two canoes, those trees appeared tolerably Sound and will make canoes of 28 feet in length and about 16 or 18 inches deep and from 16 to 24 inches wide. ... The horses being fatigued and their feet very Sore, I shall let them rest a fiew days. during which time the party intended for to take them by land to the Mandans will dress their skins and make themselves clothes to ware, as they are nearly naked.
July 21, 1806
...northern branch of Maria's river ....being convinced that this stream came from the mountains I determined to pursue it as it will lead me to the most no[r]thern point to which the waters of Maria's river extend which I now fear will not be as far north as I wished and expected. ... we pursued it untill dark and not finding any timber halted and made a fire of the dung of the buffaloe. ... our provision is nearly out, ...
July 24, 1806
Sergt. Pryor informed me that it would be impossible for the two men with him to drive on the horses after him without tireing all the good ones in pursute of the more indifferent to keep them on the course. that in passing every gangue of buffalow several of which he had met with, the loos horses as soon as they saw the Buffalow would imediately pursue them and run around them. All those that [had] speed sufficient would head the buffalow and those of less speed would pursue on as fast as they could. ... This disposition in the horses is no doubt owing to their being frequently exercised in chasing different animals by their former owners the Indians as it is their Custom to chase very species of wild animal with horses, for which purpose they train all their horses. ... H. Hall who cannot swim expressed a Willi[ng]ness to proceed on with Sergt. Pryor by land, and as another man was necessary to assist in driveing the horses, but observed he was necked, I gave him one of my two remaining Shirts a par of leather Legins and 3 pr. of mockersons which equipt him completely and sent him on with the party by land to the Mandans. ... Saw emence number of Deer Elk and buffalow on the banks. Some beaver. I landed on the Lard Side walked out into the bottom and Killed the fatest Buck I every saw; ... So it is we have a great abundance of the best of meat. we made 70 Ms. to day ...
July 25, 1806
...arived at a remarkable rock situated in an extensive bottom ... this rock I ascended and from it's top had a most extensive view in every direction. This rock which I shall call Pompy's Tower is 200 feet high and 400 paces in secumpherance and only axcessable on one Side ... The nativs have ingraved on the face of this rock the figures of animals &c. near which I marked my name and the day of the month & year.
July 26, 1806
...we set out biding a last adieu to this place which I now call camp disappointment.
I discovered several indians on the top of an iminence just above them who appeared to be looking down towards the river I presumed at Drewyer. about half the horses were saddled. this was a very unpleasant sight, however I resolved to make the best of our situation and to approach them in a friendly manner. I directed J. Fields to display the flag which I had brought for that purpose and advanced slowly toward them, about this time they discovered us and appeared to run about in a very confused manner as if much allarmed, their attention had been previously so fixed on Drewyer that they did not discover us untill we had began to advance upon them, ... I told the two men with me that I apprehended that these were the Minnetares of Fort de Prarie and from their known character I expected that we were to have some difficulty with them; that if they thought themselves sufficiently strong I was convinced they would attempt to rob us in which case be their numbers what they would I should resist to the last extremity prefering death to that of being deprived of my papers instruments and gun and desired that they would form the same resolution and be allert and on their guard.
... the bluffs are so steep that there are but few places where they could be ascended, ... in this bottom there stand t[h]ree solitary trees near one of which the indians formed a large semicircular camp of dressed buffaloe skins and invited us to partake of their shelter which Drewyer and myself accepted and the Fieldses lay near the fire in front of the she[l]ter. ...
I told these people that I had come a great way from the East up the large river which runs towards the rising sun, that I had been to the great waters where the sun sets and had seen a great many nations all of whom I had invited to come and trade with me on the rivers on this side of the mountains, that I had found most of them at war with their neighbours and had succeeded in restoring peace among them, that I was now on my way home and had left my party at the falls of the missouri with orders to decend that river to the entrance of Maria's river and there wait my arrival and that I had come in surch of them in order to prevail on them to be at peace with their neighbours particularly those on the West side of the mountains and to engage them to come and trade with me when the establishment is made at the entrance of this river to all which they readily gave their assent and declared it to be their wish to be at peace with the Tushepahs whom they said had killed a number of their relations lately and pointed to several of those present who had cut their hair as an evidince of the truth of what they had asserted. ... I feel into a profound sleep and did not wake untill the noise of the men and indians awoke me a little after light in the morning.
July 27, 1806
... J. Fields who was on post had carelessly laid his gun down behi[n]d him near where his brother was sleeping, one of the indians ... sliped behind him and took his gun and that of his brother unperceived by him, at the same instant two others advanced and seized the guns of Drewyer and myself. J. Fields seeing this turned about to look for his gun and saw the fellow just runing off with her and his brother's he called to his brother who instantly jumped up and pursued the indian with him whom they overtook at the distance of 50 or 60 paces from the camp s[e]ized their guns and rested them from him and R. Fields as he seized his gun stabed the indian to the heart with his knife the fellow ran about 15 steps and fell dead; of thjis I did not know untill afterwards, having recovered their guns they ran back isntantly to the camp; Drewyer who was awake saw the indian take hold of his gun and instantly jumped up and s[e]ized her and rested her from him but the indian still retained his pouch, his jumping up and crying damn you let go my gun awakened me ... I then drew a pistol from my holster and terning myself about saw the indian making off with my gun I ran at him with my pistol and bid him lay down my gun which he was in the act of doing when the Fieldses returned and drew up their guns to shoot him which I forbid as he did not appear to be about to make any resistance or commit any offensive act, he droped the gun and walked slowly off, I picked her up instantly, Drewyer having about this time recovered his gun and pouch asked me if he might not kill the fellow which I also forbid as the indian did not appear to wish to kill us, as soon as they found us all in possession of our arms they ran and indeavored to drive off all the horses I now hollowed to the men and told them to fire on them if they attempted to drive off our horses, they accordingly pursued the main party who were dr[i]ving the horses up the river and I pursued the man who had taken my gun who with another was driving off a part of the horses which were to the left of the camp. ... being nearly out of breath I could pursue no further, I called to them as I had done several times before that I would shoot them if they did not give me my horse and raised my gun, one of them jumped behind and rock and spoke to the other who turned arround and stoped at the distance of 30 steps from em and I shot him through the belly, he fell to his knees and on his wright elbow from which position he partly raised himself up and fired at me, and turning himself about crawled in behind a rock which was a few feet from him. he overshot me, being bearheaded I felt the wind of his bullet very distinctly. ... we left one of our horses and took four of the best of those of the indian's; while the men were preparing the horses I put four sheilds and two bows and quivers of arrows which had been left on the fire, with sundry other articles; ... I also retook the flagg but left the medal about the neck of the dead man that they might be informed who we were. we took some of their buffaloe meat and set out ascending the bluffs by the same rout we had decended last evening leaving the ballance of nine of their horses which we did not want. ... no time was therefore to be lost and we pushed our horses as hard as they would bear ... we passed a large branch ... which I called battle river. ...we arrived at rose river about 5 miles above where we had passed it as we went out, having traveled by my estimate compared with our former distances and cou[r]ses about 63 ms. ... after refreshing ourselves we again set out by moonlight and traveled leasurely, heavy thunderclouds lowered arround us on every quarter but that from which the moon gave us light. we continued to pass immence herds of buffaloe all night as we had done in the latter part of the day. we traveled untill 2 OCk in the morning having come by my estimate after dark about 20 ms. ... my indian horse carried me very well in short much better than my own would have done and leaves me with but little reason to complain of the robery.
July 27, 1806
I marked my name with red paint on a cotton tree near my camp, and Set out at an early hour ... The Buffalow and Elk is estonishingly noumerous on the banks of the river on each side, particularly the Elk which lay on almost every point in large gangs and are so jintle that we frequently pass within 20 or 30 paces of them without their being the least alarmd. ... when we pass the Big horn I take my leave of the View of the tremendious chain of Rocky Mountains white with Snow in View of which I have been since the 1st of May last.
Shields killed a Deer & a antilope to day for the skins which the party is in want of for Clothes.
July 28, 1806
I was so soar from my ride yesterday that I could scarcely stand, and the men complained of being in a similar situation however I encouraged them by telling them that our own lives as well as those of our friends and fellow travellers depended on our exertions at this moment; ... I now told them that it was my determination that if we were attacked in the plains on our way to the point that the bridles of the horses should be tied together and we would stand and defend them, or sell our lives as dear as we could. ... being then within five miles of the grog spring we heared the report of several rifles very distinctly on the river to our right, we quickly repared to this joyfull sound and on arriving at the bank of the river had the unspeakable satisfaction to see our canoes coming down. ... we decended the river opposite to our principal cash which we proceeded to open after reconnoitering the adjacent country. we found that the cash had caved in and most of the articles burried therin were injured; I
sustained the loss of two very large bear skins which I much regret; most of the fur and baggage belonging to the men were injured. the gunpowder corn flour poark and salt had sustained but little injury the parched meal was spoiled or nearly so. having no time to air these things which they much wanted we droped down to the point to take in the several articles which had been buried at that place in several small cashes; these we found in good order, and recovered every article except 3 traps belonging to Drewyer which could not be found. here as good fortune would have it Sergt. Gass and Willard who brought the horses from the falls joined us at 1 P.M. ... having now nothing to detain us we passed over immediately to the island in the entrance of Maria's river to launch the red perogue, but found her so much decayed that it was impossible with the means we had to repare her and therefore mearly took the nails and other ironworks about her which might be of service to us and left her. we now reimbarked on board the white perog[u]e and five small canoes and decended the river about 15 ms. and encamped on the S.W. side ... during the time we halted at the entrance of Maria's river we experienced a very heavy shower of rain and hail attended with violent thunder and lightning.
August 1, 1806
at 2 P. M. I was obliged to land to let the Buffalow cross over. not withstanding an island of half a mile in width over which this gangue of Buffalow had to pass and the chanel of the river on each side nearly 1/4 of a mile in width, this gangue of Buffalow was entirely across and as thick as they could swim. the chanel on the side of the island the[y] went into the river was crouded with those animals for 1/2 an hour. (I was obliged to lay to for one hour) the other Side of the island for more than 3/4 of an hour. ... two gangues of Buffalow crossed a little below us, as noumerous as the first.
August 2, 1806
the wolves do catch the elk. I saw 2 wolves in pursute of [a] doe Elk which I beleive they cought ... about 8 A.M. this morning a Bear of the large vicious species being on a Sand bar raised himself up on his hind feet and looked at us as we passed down near the middle of the river. he plunged into the water and swam towards us, either from a disposition to attack't or from the cent of the meat which was in the canoes. we Shot him with three balls and he returned to Shore badly wounded. In the evening I saw a very large Bear take the water above us. ... Much the largest feemale bear I ever saw. ... we were very near being detained by the Buffalow to day which were crossing the river we got through the line between 2 gangues.
August 3, 1806
we proceeded, and shortly after overtook J. and R. Fields who had killed 25 deer since they left us yesterday; ... we did not halt today to cook and dine as usual having directed that in future the party should cook as much meat in the evening after encamping as would be sufficient to serve them the next day; ...... making in all 29 deer since yesterday morning.
August 4, 1806
Musquetors excessively troublesom so much so that the men complained that they could not work at their Skins for those troublesom insects. and I find it entirely impossible to hunt in the bottoms, those insects being so noumerous and tormenting as to render it imposseable for a man to continue in the timbered lands and our best retreat from those insects is on the Sand bars in the river and even those Situations are only clear of them when the Wind Should happen to blow which it did to day for a fiew hours in the middle of the day. the evenings nights and mornings they are almost [un]indureable perticularly by the party with me who have no Bears [biers] to keep them off at night, and nothing to Screen them but their blankets which are worn and have maney holes. The torments of those Missquetors ... induce me to deturmine to proceed on to a more eliagiable Spot on the Missouri below at which place the Musquetors will be less troublesom and Buffalow more plenty. ... wrote a note to Capt. Lewis informing him of my intentions and tied it to a pole which I had struck up in the point. ... on this point the Musquetors were so abundant that we were tormented much worst than at the point. The child of Shabono has been so much bitten by the Musquetors that his face is much puffed up & Swelled.
August 6, 1806
... a violent storm arrose to the N.E. and shortly after came on attended with violent Thunder lightning and some hail; the rain fell in a mere torrant and the wind blew so violently that it was with difficulty I could have the small canoes unloaded before they filled with water; ... our situation was open and exposed to the storm.
August 6, 1806
This morning a very large Bear of [the] white Species, discovered us floating in the water and takeing us, as I prosume to be Buffalow imediately plunged into the river and prosued us. I directed the men to be still. this animal Came within about 40 yards of us, and tacked about. ...
(Re: killing 9 deer that day ...) only 2 of those deer were fat owing as I suppose to the Musquetors which are so noumerous and troublesom to them that they cannot feed except under the torments of millions of those Musquetors.
August 7, 1806
the air was exceedingly clear and cold and not a musquetor to be seen, which is a joyfull circumstance to the Party.
August 7, 1806
we set out early resolving if possible to reach the Yelowstone river today which was at the distance of 83 ms. from our encampment of the last evening; ... we passed the entrance of Marthy's river which has changed it's entrance since we passed it last year, ... the bear appear to be very abundant on this part of the river. ... at 4 P.M. we arrived at the entrance of the Yellowstone river. I landed at the point and found that Capt. Clark had been encamped at this place and from appearances had left it about 7 or 8 days. I found a paper on a pole at the point which mearly contained my name in the hand wrighting of Capt. C. we also found the remnant of a note which had been attatched to a peace of Elk'shorns in the camp; from this fragment I learned that game was scarce at the point and musquetoes troublesome which were the reasons given for his going on;
August 11, 1806
... the most northern point of the Missouri, ... when I arrived here it was about 20 minutes after noon and of course the observation for the sun's meridian Altitude was lost.
I was in the act of firing on the Elk a second time when a ball struck my left thye about an inch below my hip joint, missing the bone it passed through the left thye and cut the thickness of the bullet across the hinder part of the right thye; the stroke was very severe; I instantly supposed that Cruzatte had shot me in mistake for an Elk as I was dressed in brown leather and he cannot see very well; under this impression I called out to him damn you, you have shot me, and looked towards the place from whence the ball had come, seeing nothing I called Cruzatte several times as loud as I could but received no answer; I was now preswaded that it was an indian that had shot me as the report of the gun did not appear to be more than 40 paces from me and Cruzatte appeared to be out of hearing of me; in this situation not knowing how many indians there might be concealed in the bushes I thought best to make good my retreat to the perogue, calling out as I ran for the first hundred paces as loud as I could to Cruzatte to retreat that there were indians hoping to allarm him in time to make his escape also; I still retained the charge in my gun which I was about to discharge at the moment the ball struck me. when I arrived in sight of the perogue I called the men to their arms to which they flew in an instant, I told them that I was wounded but I hoped not mortally, by an indian I beleived and directed them to follow me that I would return & give them battle and releive Cruzatte if possible who I feared had fallen into their hands; the men followed me as they were bid and I returned about a hundred paces when my wounds became so painfull and my thye so stiff that I could scarcely get on; ... I now got back to the perogue as well as I could and prepared my self with a pistol my rifle and air-gun being determined as a retreat was impracticable to sell my life as deerly as possible. in this state of anxiety and suspense I remained about 20 minutes ... Cruzatte seemed much allarmed and declared if he had shot me it was not his intention, that he had shot an Elk in the willows after he left or seperated from me. ... I do not beleive that the fellow did it intentionally but after finding that he had shot me was anxious to conceal his knowledge of having done so. the ball had lodged in my breeches which I knew to be the ball of the short rifles such as that he had, and there being no person out with me but him and no indians that we could discover I have no doubt in my own mind of his having shot me. ... the pain I experienced excited a high fever and I had a very uncomfortable night. at 4 P.M. we passed an encampment which had been evacuated this morning by Capt. Clark, here I found a note from Capt. C. informing me that he had left a letter for me at the entrance of the Yelow stone river, but that Sergt. Pryor who had passed that place since he left it had taken the letter; ... this I fear puts an end to our prospects of obtaining the Sioux Cheifs to accompany us as we have not now leasure to send and engage Mr. Heney on this service, ...
August 12, 1806
... the bowsman informed me that there was a canoe and a camp he beleived of whitemen on the N.E. shore. ... found it to be the camp of two hunters from the Illinois by name Joseph Dickson and Forest Hancock. ... while I halted with these men Colter and Collins who seperated from us on the 3rd i[n]st rejoined us. ... at 1 P.M. I overtook Capt. Clark and party and had the pleasure of finding them all well. as wrighting in my present situation is extreemly painfull to me I shall desist untill I recover and leave to my fri[e]nd Capt. C. the continuation of our journal.
August 12, 1806
... Shannon discovered he had lost his Tomahk. ... at Meridian Capt Lewis hove in Sight with the party which went by way of the Missouri as well as that which accompanied him from Travellers rest on Clarks river; I was alarmed on the landing of the Canoes to be informed that Capt. Lewis was wounded by an accident. I found him lying in the Perogue, he informed me that his would was slight and would be well in 20 or 30 days this information relieved me very much. I examined the wound and found it a very bad flesh wound the ball had passed through the fleshey part of his left thy below the hip bone and cut the cheek of the right buttock for 3 inches in length and the debth of the ball. ... This Crusat is near Sighted and has the use of but one eye, he is an attentive industrious man and one whome we both have placed the greatest confidence in dureing the whole rout.
I washed Capt L. wound which has become Sore and Somewhat painfull to him.
August 14, 1806
we derected the Blunderbuses fired Several times, ... those people were extreamly pleased to See us. the chief of the little Village of the Menetarras cried Most imoderately, I enquired the cause and was informed it was for the loss of his Son who had been killed latterly by the Blackfoot Indians.
(Black Cats village) ... this Village I discovered had been rebuilt sin[c]e I left it and much smaller than it was; enquiring into the cause was informed that a quarrel had taken place and (a number of) Lodges had removed to the opposd. Side. ... the Black Cat Chief of the Mandans, spoke and informed me that he wished to Visit the United States and his Great Father but was afraid of the Scioux who were yet at war with them and had killed several of their men since we had left them, and were on the river below and would certainly kill him if he attempted to go down.
August 15, 1806
Colter one of our men expressed a desire to join Some trappers who offered to become shearers with [him] and furnish traps &c. the offer [was] a very advantagious one, to him, his services could be dispenced with from this down and as we were disposed to be of service to any one of our party who had performed their duty as well as Colter had done, we agreed to allow him the privilage provided no one of the party would ask or expect a Similar permission to which they all agreeed that they wished Colter every suckcess and that as we did not wish any of them to Seperate untill we Should arrive at St. Louis they would not apply or expect it &c. ... we gave Jo Colter Some Small articles which we did not want and some powder & lead. the party also gave him several articles which will be usefull to him on his expedittion. This evening Charbono informed me that our back was scercely turned before a war party from the two menetarry villages followed on and attacked and killed the Snake Indians whome we had seen and in the engagement between them and the Snake indians they had lost two men one of which was the Son of the principal Chief of the little village of the Menitarras. that they had also went to war from the Menetarras and killed two Ricaras. he further informed me that a missunderstanding had taken place between the Mandans & Minetarras and had very nearly come to blows about a woman.
August 17, 1806
Settled with Touisant Chabono for his services as an enterpreter the price of a horse and Lodge purchased of him for public Service in all amounting to 500$ 33 1/3 cents.
we also took our leave of T. Chabono, his Snake Indian wife and their child [son] who had accompanied us on our rout to the pacific ocean in the capacity of interpreter and interprete[s]s. T. Chabono wished much to accompany us in the said Capacity if we could have provailed [upon] the Menetarre Chiefs to dec[e]nd the river with us to the U. States, but as none of those Chiefs of whoes language he was Conversent would accompany us, his services were no longer of use to the U. States and he was therefore discharged and paid up. we offered to convey him down to the Illinois if he chose to go, he declined proceeding on at present, observing that he had no acquaintance or prospects of makeing a liveing below, and must continue to live in the way that he had done. I offered to take his little son a butifull promising child who is 19 months old to which they both himself & wife wer willing provided the child had been weened. they observed that in one year the boy would be sufficiently old to leave his mother & he would then take him to me if I would be so freindly as to raise the child for him in such a manner as I thought proper, to which I agreed ...
we droped down to the Big White Cheifs Mandan village ... he informed me that he was ready and we were accompd. to the Canoes by all the village Maney of them Cried out aloud. ... we then saluted them with a gun and set out and proceeded on to Fort Mandan where I landed and went to view the old works the houses except one in the rear bastion was burnt by accident, some pickets were standing in front next to the river.
August 19, 1806
Capt. Lewis'es wounds are heeling very fast, I am much in hope of his being able to walk in 8 or 10 days.
August 21, 1806
Met three frenchmen Comeing up, ... Those men informd. us that 700 Seeoux had passed the Ricaras on their way to war with the Mandans & Menitarras and that their encampment where the Squaws and children wer, was Some place near the Big Bend of this river below. ... they were informed that the Pania or Ricara Chief who went to the United States last Spring was a year, died on his return at Some place near the Sieoux river ...
... we arived in view of the upper Ricara villages, ... and envited Some of their chiefs to accompany us down and See their great father ... a man of about 32 years of age was intreduced to me as the 1st. Cheif of the nation this man they call the grey eyes ... The Grey eyes Chief made a very animated Speach ... that the Sieoux were the cause of their Missunderstanding &c. that they were a bad peoples, ... That Several of the chiefs wished to accompany us down to See their great father, but wi[s]hed to see the Chief who went down last Sumer return first, he expressed some apprehention as to the Safty of that chiefs in passing the Sieoux.
after Smokeing I gave a medal of the Small size to the Chyenne Chief &c. which appeared to alarm him, ... this Chief informed me that none of his chiefs wished to go down with us they all wished to see the cheif who went down return first
August 22, 1806
I am happy to have it in my power to Say that my worthy friend Capt. Lewis is recovering fast, he walked a little to day for the first time. ... the ball came out
August 29, 1806
from this eminance I had a view of a greater number of buffalow than I had ever seen before at one time. I must have seen near 20,000 of those animals feeding on this plain. I have observed that in the country between the nations which are at war with each other the greatest numbers of wild animals are to be found.
August 30, 1806
here the party collected as many plumbs as they could eate and Several pecks of which they put by &c. ... imedeatily after landing about 20 indians was discovered on an eminance a little above us on the opposite Side. one of those men I took to be a french man from his [having] a blanket capo[t]e & a handkerchief around his head. imediately after 80 or 90 Indian men all armed with fusees & Bows & arrows came out of a wood on the opposite bank about 1/4 of a mile below us. ... they informed me that they were Tetons and their chief was Tar-tack-kah-sab-bar or the black buffalow this chief I knew very well to be the one we had seen with his band at Teton river which band had attempted to detain us in the fall of 1804 as we assended this river and with whome we were near comeing to blows. I told those Indians that they had been deef to our councils and ill treated us as we assended this river two years past, that they had abused all the whites who had visited them since. I believed them to be bad people & should not suffer them to cross to the Side on which the party lay, and directed them to return with their band to their camp, that if any of them come near our camp we Should kill them certainly. ... those indians seeing some corn in the canoe requested some of it which I refused being deturmined to have nothing to do with those people. ... I told this man to inform his nation that we had not forgot their treatment to us as we passed up this river &c. that they had treated all the white people who had visited them vry badly; robed them of their goods, and had wounded one man whom I had Seen. we viewed them as bad people and no more traders would be Suffered to come to them, and whenever the white people wished to visit the nations above they would come sufficiently Strong to whip any vilenous party who dare to oppose them and words to the same purpote. I also told them that I was informed that a part of all their bands were going to war against the Mandans &c, and that they would be well shiped as the Mandans & Minitarres &[c] had a plenty of Guns Powder and ball, and we had given them a cannon to defend themselves ... and to keep
away from the river or we Should kill every one of them ... 7 of them halted on the top of the hill and blackguarded us, told us to come across and they would kill us all &c of which we took no notice. we all this time were extreamly anxious for the arival fo the 2 fields & Shannon whome we had left behind, and were some what consd. as to their Safty. to our great joy those men hove in Sight at 6 P.M. Jo. Fields had killed 3 black tail or mule deer. ... one man walked down the hill to meet us and invited us to land to which invitation I paid no kind of attention. this man I knew to be the one who had in the fall 1804 accompanied us 2 days and is said to be the friend to the white people. after we passd him he returned on the top of the hill and gave 3 strokes with the gun (on the earth --this is swearing by the earth) he had in his hand this I am informed is a great oath among the indians.
September 1, 1806
... the fog became so thick that we were oblige[d] to come too ... 9 Indians ran down the bank and beckened to us to land, they appeared to be a war party, and I took them to be Tetons and paid no kind of attention to them furthr than an enquirey to what tribe they belonged, ... as one canoe was yet behind we landed in an open commanding Situation ... about 15 minits after we had landed Several guns were fired by the indians, which we expected was at the three men behind. I calld out 15 men and ran up with a full deturmination to cover them if possible let the number of the indians be what they might. Capt. Lewis hobled up on the bank and formed the remainder of the party in a Situation well calculated to defend themselves and the Canoes &c. ... they informed me that they were Shooting off their guns at an old Keg which we had thrown out of one of the Canoes and was floating down. those indians informed me they were Yanktons, ... I told them that we took them to be a party of Tetons and the fireing I expected was at the three men in the rear Canoe and I had went up with a full intention to kill them all if they had been tetons & fired on the canoe as we first expected, but finding them Yanktons and good men we were glad to see them and take them by the hand as faithfull Children who had opened their ears to our Councils. ... the[y] answered that their great Chief and many of their brave men had gone down, that the white people had built a house near the Mahar village where they traded.
at this Island we brought 2 years together or on the 1st. of Septr. 1804 we Encamped at the lower point of this Island. after we all came together we again proceeded on down to a large Sand bar imediately opposit to the place where we met the Yanktons in council at the Calumet Bluffs and which place we left on the 1t. of Septr. 1804. I observed our old flag Staff or pole Standing as we left it.
September 3, 1806
I landed & was met by a Mr. James Airs from Mackanaw ... who has a Licence to trade for one year with the Sieoux ... our first enquirey was after the President of our country and then our friends and the State of the politicks of our country &c. and the State [of] Indian affairs to all of which enquireys Mr. Aires gave us as Satisfactory information as he had it in his power to have collected in the Illinois which was not a great deel. ... this Gentleman informed us of maney changes & misfortunes which had taken place in the Illinois amongst others the loss of Mr Cady Choteaus house and furniture by fire. ... he also informed us that Genl. Wilkinson was the governor of the Louisiana and at St. Louis. 300 of the american Troops had been cantuned on the Missouri a fiew miles above it's mouth, Some disturbance with the Spaniards in the Nackatosh [Natchitoches] Country is the cause of their being called down to that country, the Spaniards had taken one of the U. States frigates in the Mediteranean, Two British Ships of the line had fired on an American Ship in the port of New York, and killed the Capts. brother. 2 Indians had been hung in St. Louis for murder and several others in jale. and that Mr. Burr & Genl. Hambleton fought a Duel, the latter was killed
September 4, 1806
as we were in want of some tobacco I purposed to Mr. Airs to furnish us with 4 carrots for which we would Pay the amount to any Merchant of St. Louis he very readily agreed to furnish us with tobacco and gave to each man as much as it is necessary for them to use between this and St. Louis, an instance of Generossity for which every man of the party appears to acknowledge. Mr. Airs also insisted on our accepting a barrel of flour. ... The flower was very acceptable to us we have yet a little flour part of what we carried up from the Illinois as high as Maria's river and buried it there untill our return &c. ...we came too at Floyds Bluff below the Enterance of Floyds river and assended the hill, with Capt. Lewis and Several men, found the grave had been opened by the nativs and left half covered. we had this grave completely filled up, and returned to the canoes and proceeded on ...
September 6, 1806
... we met a tradeing boat of Mr. Og. Choteaux [Auguste Chouteau] of St. Louis bound to the River Jacque to trade with the Yanktons, ... we purchased a gallon of whiskey of this man (promised to pay Choteau who would not receive any pay) and gave to each man of the party a dram which is the first spiritious licquor which had been tasted by any of them since the 4 of July 1805. several of the party exchanged leather for linen Shirts and beaver for corse hats. ... We advised this trader to treat the Tetons with as much contempt as possible and stated to him where he would be benefited by such treatment &c &c. ... The Chief & the Squaws & children are awarey [a-weary] of their journey. Children cry &c.
September 9, 1806
passed the enterance of the great river Platt ... My worthy friend Cap Lewis has entirely recovered his wounds are heeled up and he can walk and even run nearly as well as ever he could, the parts are yet tender &c &c. The Musquetors are yet troublesom, tho' not so much so as they were above the River platt. the climate is every day preceptably wormer and air more Sultery than I have experienced for a long time.
September 14, 1806
this being the part of the Missouri the Kanzas nation resort to at this season of the year for the purpose of robbing the perogues passing up to other nations above, we have every reason to expect to meet with them, and agreeably to their common custom of examining every thing in the perogues and takeing what they want out of them, it is probable they may wish to take those liberties with us, which we are deturmined not to allow of and for the Smallest insult we shall fire on them. ... we met three large boats bound to the Yanktons and Mahars ... those young men received us with great friendship and pressed on us Some whisky for our men, Bisquet, Pork and Onions, & part of their Stores, ... our party received a dram and Sung Songs untill 11 oClock at night in the greatest harmoney.
September 17, 1806
at 11 A. M. we met a Captain McClellin late a Capt. of Artily. of the U States Army assending in a large boat. this gentleman an acquaintance of my friend Capt. Lewis was Somewhat astonished to see us return and appeared rejoiced to meet us. we found him a man of information and from whome we received a partial account of the political State of our country, ... this Gentleman informed us that we had been long Since given out [up] by the people of the U S Generaly and almost forgotton, the President of the U. States had yet hopes of us; ... he gave us Some Buisquit, Chocolate Sugar & whiskey, for which our party were in want and for which we made a return of a barrel of corn & much obliged to him. Capt. McClellin informed us that he was on reather a speculative expedition to the confines of New Spain, with the view to entroduce a trade with those people. his plan is to proceede up this river to the Enterance of the river platt there to form an establishment from which to trade partially with the Panas & Ottoes, to form an acquaintance with the Panias and provail [on] Some of their principal Chiefs to accompany him to Santa Fee where he will appear in a stile calculated to attract the Spanish government in that quarter and through the influence of a handsome present he expects to be promited to exchange his merchindize for Silver & gold of which those people abound. ... if the Spanish Governmt. favour his plans, he purposes takeing his merchendize on mules & horses which can easily be procured of the panias, ... Capt. McClellins plan I think a very good one if strictly prosued ...
September 19, 1806
only came too once for the purpose of gathering pappows, our anxiety as also the wish of the party to proceed on as expeditiously as possible to the Illinois enduce us to continue on without halting to hunt.
a very singular disorder is takeing place amongst our party that of the Sore eyes. three of the party have their eyes inflamed and Sweled in Such a manner as to render them extreamly painfull, particularly when exposed to the light, the eye ball is much inflaimed and the lid appears burnt with the Sun, the cause of this complaint of the eye I can't [account] for. from it's sudden appearance I am willing to believe it may be owing to the reflection of the sun on the water.
September 20, 1806
as three of the party was unabled to row from the State of their eyes we found it necessary to leave one of our crafts and divide the men into the other Canoes, we left the two Canoes lashed together which I had made high up the River Rochejhone, ... we met a perogue with 5 french men bound to the Osarge Gd. village. ...
we saw some cows on the bank which was a joyfull Sight to the party and caused a Shout to be raised for joy at ... we came in Sight of the little french Village called Charriton (Charrette) the men raised a Shout and Sprung upon their ores and we soon landed opposit to the Village. our party requested to be permited to fire off their Guns which was alowed & they discharged 3 rounds with a harty cheer, which was returned from five tradeing boats which lay opposit the village. we landed and were very politely received by two young Scotch men from Canada ... all of those boats were bound to the Osage and Ottoes. those two young Scotch gentlemen furnished us with Beef flower and some pork for our men ... we purchased of a citizen two gallons of Whiskey for our party for which we were obliged to give Eight dollars in Cash, an imposition on the part of the citizen. every person, both French and americans seem to express great pleasure at our return, and acknowledged themselves much astonished in seeing us return. they informed us that we were supposed to have been lost long since, and were entirely given out by every person &c. ... the American inhabitants express great disgust for the govermt. of this Teritory.
September 21, 1806
colected our men several of them had axcepted of the invitation of the citizens and visited their families. ... passed 12 canoes of Kickapoos assending on a hunting expedition. Saw Several persons also stock of different kind on the bank which reviv'd the party very much. at 3 P M we met two large boats assending. at 4 P M we arived in Iight of St. Charles, the party rejoiced at the Sight of this hospita[b]l[e] village plyed thear ores with great dexterity and we Soon arived opposit the Town ... we saluted the Village by three rounds from our blunderbuts and the Small arms of the party, and landed near the lower part of the town. we were met by great numbers of the inhabitants, ... the inhabitants of this village appear much delighted at our return and seem to vie with each other in their politeness to us all. (some Settlements since we went up)
September 23, 1806
we rose early took the Chief to the publick store & furnished him with Some clothes &c. ... decended to the Mississippi and down that river to St. Louis at which place we arived about 12 oClock. we Suffered the party to fire off their pieces as a Salute to the Town. we were met by all the village and received a harty welcom from it's inhabitants &c.
September 25, 1806
payed some visits of form, to the gentlemen of St. Louis. in the evening a dinner & Ball
September 26, 1806
a fine morning we commenced wrighting &c